DNA Replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
DNA replication is a process of copying the genetic information present in DNA to make new DNA molecules. This process is essential for the propagation of life.
In prokaryotes, DNA replication is a relatively simple process. The DNA is unwound and the two strands are separated. The new strands are then synthesized using the information from the original strands.
In eukaryotes, DNA replication is a more complex process. The DNA is first divided into two strands, and then special proteins called enzymes bind to the DNA strands. These enzymes help to separate the DNA strands and then to synthesize the new strands.
DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
In prokaryotes, DNA replication begins at a specific point on the DNA molecule called the origin of replication. The origin is a short segment of DNA that contains the information necessary to start the replication process.
The replication process begins when a protein called DNA polymerase attaches to the origin of replication. The polymerase then begins to copy the DNA molecule, one strand at a time. Each new strand is created by matching the appropriate nucleotides to the existing strand.
The process of DNA replication is very accurate, and most errors are corrected by the DNA repair mechanisms. However, occasionally a mistake will slip through and a new mutation will be created.
DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic DNA replication is a process of copying the genetic information of a cell nucleus into two identical daughter nuclei. The process begins with the unwinding of the double-stranded DNA molecule into two single strands. One of the strands serves as a template for the replication of the other strand. This is done by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which synthesizes new DNA strands by matching each nucleotide to the corresponding nucleotide on the template strand. The process of replication is completed when the two daughter DNA molecules are fully assembled.
Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Replication: Tabular Form
-Replication is the process by which a molecule of DNA is copied.
-Prokaryotic replication is the process by which a molecule of DNA is copied in prokaryotic cells.
-Eukaryotic replication is the process by which a molecule of DNA is copied in eukaryotic cells.
-Prokaryotic replication is simpler than eukaryotic replication.
-Prokaryotic replication does not involve the use of histones.
-Eukaryotic replication involves the use of histones.
-Eukaryotic replication is more complex than prokaryotic replication.