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Before we begin with the electrical dipole moment we ought to recognize what can we mean using the term dipole and dipole moment. An electric dipole is a couple of same and contrary fees separated using a notably short distance. In an electric-powered dipole, the importance of each of the costs may be identical, we can not consider a pair of costs with different magnitudes.

Since an electric-powered dipole is a couple of equal and opposite expenses, therefore the entire price in an electric-powered dipole can be 0. While analyzing electric powered dipole we ought to understand that the full price of an electric powered dipole is 0 does not imply that the discipline of an electric dipole is zero.

**Dipole Moment**

Whenever two equal and contrary costs are delivered collectively there might be both some enchantment or repulsion pressure between them. A few instances of electric dipoles are HCl, H_{₂}O, CH₃COOH, etc. These molecules will have fixed dipole moments because the centre behaviour middle of the advantageous charge will no longer be coinciding with the bad price. The electric dipole second is a vector amount, it has a selected course and importance. The electric dipole moment physics performs an important role to apprehend the idea of polarisation. Now, allow us to outline electric dipole second, or in other words, allow us to have a look at how do we define the dipole moment of an electric powered dipole.

**Define Electric Dipole Moment**

Now, the dipole second definition is given because the manufactured from the magnitude of costs and the separation between them. The dipole moment determines the power of an electric dipole to produce the electric field. It is denoted with the aid of P and it is a vector amount.

Mathematically, the electrical dipole moment is given via:

Consider two-factor fees q and -q area on dipole axis separated via a distance 2a, then the electrical dipole second is,

⇒ P = q x 2a………..(1)

Where,

q – The magnitude of the rate

2a – The separation between expenses

Equation (1) is referred to as the electric dipole moment system physics.

The path of the dipole second is constantly from the negative fee to the wonderful rate. The SI unit of the electrical dipole second is Columb-meter(C-m). The dimensional method of an electric powered dipole is

M⁰L¹T¹A¹

M⁰L¹T¹A¹.

**Dipoles in an External Electric Field**

Consider an electric dipole placed in an external electric powered field. The electric-powered dipole will experience a few forces and is referred to as the torque. The torque is the force exerted on the dipoles positioned in an outside electric discipline and is given using,

⇒τ = P x E = PE Sin θ ………(1)

Where,

P – The dipole second

E – The applied external area

**Significance of Electric Dipole and the Electric Dipole Moment**

The idea of an electric dipole is not most effective having importance in physics however it’s far an equally valid and outstanding topic in chemistry as nicely.

We understand that most of the matter made from atoms and molecules might be electrically impartial. Depending upon the behaviour of the pair of expenses, the molecules are subdivided into sorts,

Polar molecules: If the centre of mass of advantageous price doesn’t coincide with the centre of mass of poor fee then it’s far known as a polar molecule.

Non-Polar molecules: If the centre of mass of tremendous rate coincides with the middle, expenses, s of bad rate then it’s miles called a Non-Polar molecule.

Polar molecules own everlasting dipole moments. These dipoles are randomly orientated within the absence of an outside electric-powered area. On making use of an electric-powered discipline, the polar molecules will align themselves inside the course of the electrical area.

In a system, if the internet rate is 0, that does not imply that there could be no electric powered area or the electric field can be absent. This became greater evident by using analyzing the electrical dipole moment. Therefore, the take a look at an electric dipole is vital.

The observation of dipoles and the dipole moments will help us recognize the concept of polarization.

**Example**

**1. When an Electric Dipole P is Placed in a Uniform Electric Field E, at What Angle Between P and E the Value of Torque may be Maximum?**

**Ans:** Given that an electric powered dipole is positioned in a uniform electric area. We intend to calculate the maximum torque.

We recognize that the torque performing on a dipole located in an external electric area is given by using,

⇒τ = P x E = PE Sin θ ………(1)

Where, P – The dipole moment

E – The carried out external discipline

Therefore, the fee torque may be most when the angle among the electric discipline and the dipole moment is 90

## FAQs:

**Q: ****What is the difference between an electric dipole and an electric dipole moment?**

**Q. What is the Direction of an Electric Dipole Moment?**

**Ans: **The electric dipole second is a vector amount. Its bearing is generally considered from the negative charge to the positive charge

**Q. What is the SI Unit of Electric Dipole Moment?**

**Ans:** The SI unit of electric dipole moment is Coulomb meter and the dimensional formula is given by [M^{0} L^{1} T^{1} A^{1}].