An electrocardiograph or ECG test is used to measure cardiac output. The test only takes a few minutes and there is no pain.
The electrical activity of the heart causes the heart muscle to contract which leads to cardiac pumping. ECG is a type of spikes and dips known as waves. The wave pattern helps to assess the rate and rhythm of our heartbeat.
The human heart produces electrical energy on its own. As this pressure travels through our heart, it produces energy that spreads through our body and reaches the skin.
The patient is connected to an Electrocardiograph (ECG) machine with three wires (one to both wrists and a third to the patient’s left ankle), which is used to monitor heart function.
the main types of data are provided by ECG. First, the surgeon will determine how long it takes for the magnetic field to travel through the heart by calculating the time intervals on the ECG. Whether the electrical activity is natural or lazy, fast or constant, to find out how long it takes for a heartbeat to go from one part of the heart to the next. Second, a cardiologist may be able to determine if the heart area is too large or overactive by measuring the amount of electrical activity flowing through the heart muscle. Ten electrodes are attached to the patient’s arms and over the heart in a traditional 12-lead ECG. The average electrical activity of the heart is then calculated from 12 different angles (“lead”) and reported over a period of time (usually 10 seconds). Throughout the cardiac phase, total stiffness and electrical trajectory of cardiac depolarization are observed at each time point.
Evidence does not support the use of ECGs as a preventative measure among those who have no symptoms or lower risk of heart disease. This is because the ECG may incorrectly raise anxiety, leading to misdiagnosis, initiation of invasive procedures, and overdose treatment. People who work in certain critical occupations, such as pilots, may need to have an ECG as part of their regular safety check-ups.
The electrocardiograph procedure includes:
- Small adhesive electrodes are attached to the arms, chest and legs.
- These electrodes are connected to an ECG machine by cables that help determine the electrical impulses that occur in each heartbeat.
- These electrodes usually receive a small number of electrical pathway changes in the skin from the heart muscle and depolarized electrophysiologic patterns throughout the heartbeat.
Types of ECG tests
There are three main types of ECG tests:
- Relaxing ECG
This type of ECG is used to monitor cardiovascular activity at rest. While performing this test, the patient is asked to rest and then, his heartbeat is recorded.
- Perform an ECG
This type of ECG is used to monitor cardiovascular activity during stress or exercise. In this test, the patient is asked to run or walk on a treadmill or cycle while the heartbeat is recorded.
- 24-hour ECG
As the name suggests, this type of ECG is performed 24 hours a day. Electrical heart rate is measured by a device called a Holter Monitor.
Medical Use of ECG
The primary goal of electrocardiography is to obtain information about the electrical activity of the heart. This means they can get evidence of a previous heart attack or even any undiagnosed heart disease. The therapeutic use of such information is very important and provides a deeper understanding of conditions such as:
- Pulmonary embolism
- Cardiac dysrhythmia
- Myocardial infarction or heart disease
- Deep vein thrombosis
- Ventricular hypertrophy
It also proves useful in applications such as:
- Patient Biotelemetry
- Heart Depression Test
- Diagnosis of structural heart disease
- Monitoring the effects of heart medication
- To check the abnormality of the electrolyte
- Monitor the type of anaesthesia involved
- CTA- Computed tomography angiography and MRA-Magnetic resonance angiography of the heart
- Examination of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in adolescents as part of sports-related deaths, such as sudden cardiac death.
Feature of Normal Electrocardiogram:
- Heart rate should be between 60-90 beats per minute (bpm).
- PR interval: 0.12 – 0.20 seconds
- QRS Duration: 0.06 – 0.10 seconds
- QT interval (QTc ≤ 0.40 sec)
Why an ECG?
An electrocardiograph is performed for the following reasons:
- Check for heart health in the event of other illnesses such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, etc.
- Checking the thickness of the heart wall chambers.
- Monitor whether the medication causes any side effects.
- Checking whether the implanted arteries in the heart are working properly or not.
An electrocardiogram is a clear record produced by an electrocardiograph that provides information about a person’s heartbeat and rhythm and shows if the heart has increased due to high blood pressure (hypertension) or evidence of previous myocardial infarction (heart attack if present). Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most common and effective diagnoses of all medications. It is easy to do, non-invasive produces immediate results, and is useful for diagnosing hundreds of heart conditions.
Q. What is the Complete ECG Form?
Ans: The ECG represents an electrocardiograph.
Q. How Many Different Kinds Of Waves Are There In The ECG?
Ans: There are three main types of ECG peak:
- The P-wave represents the destruction of the atria, which leads to the shortening of both atria.
- The QRS complex represents the rupture of the ventricles, leading to ventricular contraction.
- The T-wave represents the restoration of the ventricles from normal to normal which is repolarisation and the end of the T-wave marks the end of the systole.
Q. How effective is an ECG?
Ans: An ECG (electrocardiogram) measures or records the electrical activity of our heart at rest and provides information about our heartbeat and rhythm.
It also shows if there is any heart growth due to high blood pressure (hypertension).
Q. Why an ECG?
Ans: The ECG was performed for the following reasons:
- For any heart-related problems.
- To see if you have had a heart attack.
- Finding out which drug causes the undesirable effect on our body.
- Knowing if there are any blocked arteries.
Q. Describe the Different Types of ECG?
Ans: There are three different types of ECG performed:
Resting ECG: when your body is in a state of rest. Under this type of machine check your heartbeat during rest.
Ambulatory ECG: This type of ECG is performed 24 hours a day. Electrical heart rate is measured by a device called a Holter Monitor.
Cardiovascular test: This test is used to measure the ECG when you are on an exercise bike.