BlogNCERTImportant Topic Of Biology: Parathyroid

Important Topic Of Biology: Parathyroid

Parathyroid hormone is produced in the human body by the four parathyroid glands. These glands, about the size of a grain of wheat or rice, are an important part of the endocrine system. They are found behind the thyroid gland in the neck.

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    Calcium levels in the blood are constantly monitored and controlled by these glands. Calcium balance is important in maintaining bone density. Regular and careful delivery of calcium restores thinning bones. The parathyroid hormone regulates the process (PTH).

    Let’s discuss the clear definition of Parathyroid first!

    Definition and function of Parathyroid hormone

    Parathyroid glands release a hormone that helps regulate calcium levels in the blood. Hormone deficiency will cause calcium levels to become unbalanced, causing bone loss and too much can cause kidney stones to form. Normal PTH levels are necessary for good health.

    Parathyroid hormone, also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a secreted peptide hormone by the parathyroid glands that regulates the concentration of serum calcium by its effects on bones, kidneys, and intestines. A low level of parathyroid hormone is a rare disease that causes very low calcium levels. Vitamin D analogs and calcium supplements are used therapeutically. When calcium levels fall, people experience congestion or congestion in the muscles of the hands. Rapid immersion can cause a person to feel dizzy, foggy and cause his brain to malfunction.

    Types of Parathyroid Hormones

    It is divided into two types:

    • Parathormone.
    • Calcitonin.

    The main function of the parathyroid glands is to keep calcium levels in the blood at a minimum. The amount of calcium in the bones and bone strength are both regulated by Parathyroid glands.

    These glands, on the other hand, are close to the thyroid gland and are useless. Some examples of Parathyroid include the most affected organs:

    • Bones: The parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases the amount of calcium stored in the bones into the bones.
    • Intestines: PTH enhances the absorption of calcium in the gut through food due to its effects and effects on vitamin D metabolism.
    • Kidneys: PTH reduces calcium loss in the urine while promoting the accumulation of vitamin D in the kidneys.

    Functions of Parathyroid Hormones

    The main function of the hormone Parathyroid, also known as parathormone, is to regulate bone density by regulating calcium levels in the blood. It also helps in the production of activated vitamin D, which increases the absorption of calcium in the gut.

    In addition, the hormone helps in the reabsorption of calcium in the proximal tubule, distal tubule, and kidney-collecting channels during calcium depletion in the bones.

    Phosphate control is another important function of the parathyroid hormone. PTH also helps to reduce the absorption of phosphate from the proximal tubule of the kidneys and to remove the remaining phosphate by urination.

    On the other hand, it absorbs phosphate into the bones and intestines and carries it to the bloodstream. It affects the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestine by regulating vitamin D activation.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a disease characterized by an abnormal increase in PTH levels in the blood of an infected person. It is caused by dysfunction within or outside the glands. Primary hyperparathyroidism is internal dysfunction, whereas secondary hyperparathyroidism is external dysfunction.

    (1) Primary Hyperparathyroidism – Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much parathyroid hormone. There is discomfort in or near the parathyroid glands in this type of disease; for example, the growth of a malignant or cancer-free tumor, or hyperplasia, which is the enlargement of at least two glands. Major hyperparathyroidism can be passed on from generation to generation.

    (2) Secondary Hyperparathyroidism – A condition that leads to excessive production of parathyroid hormones, but is not caused by any abnormalities in the parathyroid glands. Excessive production of PTH can have serious consequences for the affected person. Kidney stones can form due to significant and persistent counting, which is very dangerous. This can cause severe kidney pain, especially during urination.

    Parathyroid Hormone levels

    What if the level of the Parathyroid hormone is unusually high?

    Hyperparathyroidism is caused by too much parathyroid hormone in the blood, which causes extra calcium levels in the blood.

    The most common symptoms in people with Parathyroid syndrome include depression, irritability, insomnia, loss of memory, loss of energy, and anxiety due to excessive release of parathyroid hormone.

    There are three types:

    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary hyperparathyroidism

    Calcium levels are elevated in primary and third hyperparathyroidism due to excessive parathyroid hormone release.

    Calcium levels are low in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to other factors such as kidney failure.


    Antithyroid medications and radiation iodine therapy are two treatments for hyperparathyroidism. This condition can be relieved by surgically removing non-cancerous adenomas and cancerous tumors. Intravenous calcium gluconate can help people with hypoparathyroidism to restore the proper amount of calcium in their bodies.

    For someone with a chronic illness, reconstructed parathyroid hormone injections combined with calcium supplementation can be a lifelong treatment.

    Also read: Important Topic Of Biology: Thyroid


    Is it possible to exist without parathyroid glands?

    The amount of calcium in your bones is controlled by the parathyroid glands. You can go through one (or even half) of your parathyroid glands. Removal of all four parathyroid glands will result in severe calcium deficiency (hypoparathyroidism).

    What happens if the parathyroid gland does not function properly?

    Thyroid problems produce abnormal calcium levels in the blood, which can lead to fractures, kidney stones, fatigue, weakness, and other problems.

    How can you treat parathyroid disease?

    Monitoring, medication, dietary supplements, and surgery are among the treatments for Parathyroid disease. The most effective way to treat this condition is surgery. It involves the removal of dysfunctional parathyroid glands and can be done with a mild invasion or a routine neck examination.

    If you have hyperparathyroidism, should you take vitamin D?

    Vitamin D supplementation can be safely given to selected individuals with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism and is recommended prior to treatment or surgery. While you are getting enough vitamin D, it is a good idea to keep an eye on your serum calcium levels and urine calcium excretion.

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