The pituitary (hypophysis) is a pea-sized gland of the endocrine located near the base of the brain, right below the hypothalamus, and behind the bridge of one’s nose. It is located in the sella turcica, a sphenoid bone protrusion. The pineal gland, pituitary, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovary, and testis are eight interconnected main endocrine glands. The pituitary is known as the “master gland” as it not only secretes its very own hormones but also instructs other glands to do so. The front (anterior) lobe, as well as the back (posterior) lobe, are the two primary portions of the pituitary gland.
A brief outline
Because the hormones produced by the pituitary gland influence so many diverse functions in the body, it is known as the “master gland.” It detects the body’s requirements and sends messages to various organs and glands throughout the body in order to stabilize their function and maintain a healthy environment. It secretes a number of hormones into the bloodstream that operates as messengers, communicating data from the pituitary gland to distant cells and controlling their activity. The pituitary gland, in particular, creates prolactin, which stimulates milk supply in the breasts. The pituitary gland also secretes hormones that influence the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes, all of which generate hormones in turn.
The hormones are generated by the pituitary gland.
The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases the hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone, which stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete steroid hormones, primarily cortisol, growth hormone, which regulates growth, metabolism, and body composition luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, also known as gonadotropins. They act on the ovaries or testes to stimulate sex hormone production, as well as egg and sperm maturity prolactin, which stimulates milk production thyroid-stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones.
- Except for follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, which are produced by the same cell, each of these hormones is produced by a different type of cell within the pituitary gland.
- The hypothalamus makes two hormones, which are subsequently stored in the posterior pituitary gland before even being released into the bloodstream.
- Anti-diuretic hormone (also known as vasopressin) regulates water balance and blood pressure, whereas oxytocin induces uterine contractions in labor and milk secretion during lactation.
- The intermediate pituitary gland is located between the anterior and posterior pituitaries. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is a hormone produced by cells in the skin that stimulates the formation of melanin.
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is vital for modulating the stress response, and the pituitary gland plays a role in this (HPA axis) Early life stress, such as childhood maltreatment or mother dysphoric behavior, can significantly affect pituitary gland growth during adolescence.
- After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, researchers discovered that higher levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were connected to a greater pituitary volume.
- Furthermore, a link between pituitary gland volume and Social Anxiety subscale scores was discovered, providing a foundation for further investigation into mediation.
- DHEA and DHEA-S were found to be predictive of bigger pituitary gland volume, which was also related to higher perceptions of social anxiety, even after controlling for age, sex, and BMI.
- This study shows that the volume of the pituitary gland mediates the association between greater DHEA(S) levels (associated with relatively early adrenarche) and social anxiety features.
- When comparing children with early adrenarche development to children with late adrenarche development, early adrenarche development is associated with a higher pituitary gland volume.
Pituitary cancer is strange development in the pituitary organ that creates over the long haul. Some pituitary growth prompts an excess of chemicals that direct imperative body capacities. Your pituitary organ might produce fewer chemicals because of some pituitary cancer. Most pituitary cancer is harmless (noncancerous) developments (adenomas). Adenomas are harmless growth that stays in the pituitary organ or encompassing tissues and doesn’t spread to different pieces of the body.
Pituitary cancers can be treated in an assortment of ways, including careful expulsion, development control, and pharmacological administration of chemical levels. Pituitary growths don’t all create manifestations. They are once in a while found by chance during an imaging test, for example, an MRI or CT, that was performed for another reason. Overproduction of chemicals is brought about by working pituitary growths.
The following are some examples of pituitary gland disorders:
- Hypopituitarism: The pituitary gland produces very little or no of some or all of its hormones as a result of this illness. This can have an impact on things like growth and the reproductive system.
- Acromegaly: The pituitary gland secretes too much growth hormone in this situation. Excessive development, particularly of the hands and feet, may result as a result of this. It’s frequently linked to pituitary tumors.
- Cushing’s illness: The pituitary organ delivers an excessive amount of adrenocorticotropic chemicals in individuals with this condition. This can prompt simple swelling, hypertension, shortcoming, and weight gain. It’s regularly brought about by a cancer close or in the pituitary organ.
- Hyperprolactinemia: In this condition, your blood contains an abnormally high measure of prolactin. This can prompt barrenness and a diminished sex drive.
Significance of Pituitary in NEET exam
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Pituitary diseases impair the pituitary gland’s function, increasing or lowering the amount of hormone release. This is usually instigated by a non-cancerous tumour acknowledged as a pituitary adenoma. A Pituitary macroadenoma (tumor greater than 10 mm) can also cause the gland’s blood supply to be compromised. It can also create an overflow or utterly block blood flow hooked on the gland. Pituitary apoplexy is the medical term for this condition.
Also read: Important Topic Of Biology: Gonads
Q: What Hormones Does the Anterior Pituitary Gland Produce?
Ans: Growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone, endorphins, and other hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Q: How are Pituitary diseases are diagnosed?
Ans: The diagnosis is frequently made via hormone blood testing and brain imaging. Some hormone blood tests can be performed at random, but others may necessitate specialist testing with medicines that should cause or prevent release in specific situations. This may entail admission to a day facility and the daily delivery of many hormones blood tests. Pituitary irregularities, such as adenoma or cysts, are routinely checked by an MRI scan of the pituitary gland.
Q: Why is the Pituitary Gland is known as the Master Gland?
Ans: The pituitary gland is known as the master gland since it is responsible for secreting the majority of hormones required to regulate growth and reproduction. The term “master gland” refers to the gland that controls some of our body’s most important activities, without which our system’s coordination would be impossible. It is in charge of the other endocrine glands.