BlogNCERTImportant Topic Of Biology: Seed Germination 

Important Topic Of Biology: Seed Germination 

Definition:

Seed germination defines continuous plant production necessary for human survival regarding the collection of medicinal plants, feed for animal grazing, and food security. The propagation of some plants is only attainable by seed, and if they are hard to germinate, this threatens their continuous existence. While some sources stay in the soil until favorable weather conditions promote germination, other seeds do not grow because of physical seed dormancy or poor seedling vigor. Fire and fire cues can boost seed germination by initiating the material and physiological processes needed to break seed inactivity, which leads to seed germination.

    Register to Get Free Mock Test and Study Material



    +91

    Verify OTP Code (required)

    I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.

    Overview

    After the seed has made it to a new location and is covered with dirt, it can germinate. Germination is the procedure of seeds developing into new plants. First, environmental conditions must trigger the seed to grow. Usually, this is defined by how deep the seed is planted, water availability, and temperature. When water is plentiful, the source fills with water in imbibition. The water activates particular proteins, called enzymes, that begin the process of seed growth. First, the embryo grows a root to access water underground. Next, the nodes, or evolution above ground, begin to appear. The origin sends a projection towards the surface, where it will grow leaves to harvest energy from the sun. The leaves continue to grow towards the light source in photomorphogenesis.

    Seed Germination

    Seed germination may be defined as the abecedarian process by which different factory species grow from a single seed into a factory. This method influences both crop yield and quality.

    A typical illustration of seed germination is sprouting a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.

    The Process of Seed Germination

    During the morning germination stage, the seeds take up water fleetly, resulting in swelling and softening the seed fleece at an optimum temperature. This stage is appertaining and to as Imbibition. It starts the growth process by the activation of enzymes. The seed activates its internal physiology, starts breathing and producing proteins, and metabolises the stored food. It is a pause phase of seed germination.

    A radicle emerges by rupturing the seed fleece to form a primary root. The seed starts absorbing underground water. After the emergence of the radicle and the plumule, the shoot begins growing overhead.

    In the final stage of seed germination, the cell of the seeds come metabolically active, elongate and divide to give rise to the seedling.

    Conditions Necessary for Seed Germination

    Then are some essential conditions necessary for a seed to germinate into a seedling and a factory.

    Water It’s essential for the germination of seeds. Some seeds are dehydrated and need to take a considerable quantity of water relative to the dry weight of the source. Water plays an integral part in seed germination. It helps by furnishing necessary hydration for the vital conditioning of protoplasm, providing dissolved oxygen for the growing embryo, softening the seed fleeces, and increasing seed permeability. It also helps in the rupturing of seed and converts the undoable food into answerable form for its translocation to the embryo.

    Oxygen It’s an essential source of energy needed for seed growth. It’s required by the growing seed for metabolism and is used as a part of aerobic respiration until it manages to grow green leaves of its own. Oxygen can be planted in the pores of soil patches, but if the seed is buried too deep, it’ll be deprived of this oxygen.

    Temperature For a seed to germinate requires a moderate temperature of around 25-30 °C. Relatively obviously, different sources bear different optimum temperatures. Some seeds that accept special conditions have lower or advanced temperatures between 5 to 40 °C.

    Light or darkness This can act as an environmental detector. Numerous seeds don’t germinate until the sun falls on them.

    The process of seed germination triggers under the below-mentioned favorable conditions. The seeds suffer rapid-fire expansion and growth of the embryo and latterly rupturing the covering layers and emergence of the radicle. This radical emergence is the complexion of germination.

    Factors Affecting Seed Germination

    • External Factors

    Water The poor or fresh force of water affects seed germination.

    Temperature This affects the growth rate and the metabolism of the seed.

    Oxygen Growing seeds breathe roundly and release the energy needed for their growth. Thus, insufficiency of oxygen affects seed germination.

    In some instances, a temperature below the moderate position slows down seed germination and promotes fungal growth in some cases. In some cases, germination stops at the temperature above the proper place.

    • Internal Factors

    Seed Dormancy

    It is a condition in which the seeds are averted from growing under favourable conditions.

    During seed dormancy

    • The seed fleece, resistant to water and feasts, restricts water uptake and oxygen exchange.
    • The seeds with uninhabited or immature embryos don’t germinate.
    • Certain seeds contain factory growth controllers, which inhibit seed germination.
    • Some seeds bear different times for their germination.

    Viviparous germination

    Viviparous germination is a particular type of germination plant in mangrove shops, swab-loving and, therefore, halophytes. Mangrove shops are planted in marshy areas on the ocean seacoast. In viviparous germination, the seeds germinate while still attached to the parent factory. The embryo grows out of the source and out of the fruit and systems from it in the form of a green seedling displaying the root and the hypocotyl.

    Epigeal and Hypogeal germination

    Epigeal and hypogeal germination is the type of germination that takes place. In epigeal germination, the cotyledons emerge out of the soil during germination.

    In hypogeal germination, the cotyledons remain inside the ground. It means the hypocotyl shows a more excellent elongation in epigeal germination while the hypocotyl is short in hypogeal germination.

    Epigeal and hypogeal germination are the two seed germination methods exhibited by seeds during their development into mature plants. Germination begins with the imbibition of water into the root, which increases the metabolism and cell division inside the source, leading to the enlargement of the embryo. The embryo stabbing the seed coat is the determination of the germination process.

    Significance of chapter for JEE primary, NEET, and board exams

    Seed germination is a crucial procedure that influences crop yield and quality. Therefore, comprehending the molecular aspects of seed dormancy and germination is of great significance for improving crop yield and quality. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of plant hormones, mainly ABA and GA, in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination in dicot species; yet, this phenomenon is scarcely researched in cereals. Therefore, further study is required to identify the molecular features involved in regulating the metabolic and signaling aspects of different plant hormones and seed dormancy and germination in cereals. In expansion, the roles of other regulatory factors, such as epigenetic and posttranscriptional gene expression regulations in controlling dormancy and germination of cereal seeds remain clarified.

    Also read: Phases of Plant Growth and Development

    FAQs

    Define seed germination.

    Seed germination defines continuous plant production necessary for human survival regarding the collection of medicinal plants, feed for animal grazing, and food security. The propagation of some plants is only attainable by seed, and if they are hard to germinate, this threatens their continuous existence.

    Explain hypogeal germination.

    The hypocotyl shows a more excellent elongation in epigeal germination, while the hypocotyl is short in hypogeal germination.

    What do you mean by seed dormancy?

    It is a condition in which the seeds are averted from growing under favorable conditions.

    Q. What are external factors that affect germination?

    Ans: Water The poor or fresh force of water affects seed germination.

    Temperature This affects the growth rate and the metabolism of the seed.

    Oxygen Growing seeds breathe roundly and release the energy needed for their growth. Thus, insufficiency of oxygen affects seed germination.

    Chat on WhatsApp Call Infinity Learn

      Register to Get Free Mock Test and Study Material



      +91

      Verify OTP Code (required)

      I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.