Blood is a fluid that binds to the tissues and is an essential part of the circulatory system. In a healthy person, about 5 liters (12 pints) of blood circulates throughout the body. In this article, blood groups and their types are described in more detail.
The composition of the blood is interesting. It contains erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets plasma, and millions of different molecules that have specific roles and functions.
Although blood fractions are the same for all people, there are different types of blood. In fact, there are more than 40 blood groups, but not all of them are clinically significant. The discovery of the ABO blood group caused a great deal of excitement as until then, all the blood was thought to be the same.
Blood Group System
Karl Landsteiner is an Austrian scientist, who discovered the ABO blood group system in 1900. In his experiment, he combined various types of blood with blood and noted that plasma of certain types of blood produced agglutinates or clusters that formed because of the lack of red molecules. blood cells also cause the immune system to attack that molecule. He then recorded agglutination and divided the blood types into 4 distinct groups. With the discovery of the ABO blood group, he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
The blood group system is important for blood transfusions. Our immune system recognizes another type of blood as foreign and attacks it when it is introduced into the body causing a transfusion reaction. Any negative similarity to Rh and ABO blood types triggers a serious reaction and threatens the life of the transfusion. Therefore, before a blood transfusion is given, it is recommended that a blood group be examined.
ABO blood type
Everyone has a blood type of ABO (A, B, AB, or O) and Rh factor (positive or negative). Like eye color or hair color, our blood type is inherited from our parents.
Each living parent contributes one or two of the ABO genes to their child. The genes A and B are strong and the gene O is repetitive. For example, if gene O is paired with gene A, the blood type will be A.
What are ABO and Rh blood groups?
During a blood transfusion, the two most important group principles tested were the ABO system and the Rhesus system.
The ABO blood group system includes 4 blood groups – A, B, AB, and O and is based primarily on antigen and antibodies in red blood cells and plasma. Both antigens and antibodies are protein molecules where antigens are present in the face of Red Blood Cells and antibodies present in plasma are involved in protecting the immune system.
On the other hand, the Rh blood system contains 50 blood group antigens. In the Rh system, the most important antigens are D, C, c, E, and e. ABO and Rh blood systems are discussed in detail below.
- ABO blood group program
The basis of the ABO collection consists of two antigens – Antigen A and Antigen B. The ABO collection system is divided into four types based on the presence or absence of antigens in the area of red blood cells and plasma antibodies.
Group A – contains antigen A and antibody B.
Group B – contains antigen B and antibody A.
Group AB – contains both A and B antigens and no antibodies (at least A or B).
Group O – does not have A or B antigens and both A and B antibodies.
The ABO group system is important during blood donation or blood transfusions as the diversity of blood groups can lead to the accumulation of red blood cells with various disorders. It is important that the blood cells are the same during the transfusion, that is, the compatibility of the donor and recipient is required. For example, a person with blood type A can receive blood from group A or O as there are no A and O antibodies in blood group A.
- Rh Blood Group System
In addition to the ABO blood system, another prominent system is the Rh blood group. About two-thirds of human beings contain a third antigen on the surface of their red blood cells known as Rh factor or Rh antigen; this determines whether the blood group is good or bad. If Rh factor is present, each person has a rhesus positive (Rh +ve); if Rh factor is not present each person has rhesus negative (Rh -ve) as it produces Rh antibodies. Therefore, coherence between provider and person is also important in this case.
Also read: Hardy-Weinberg’s principle
What are Blood Groups?
Blood groups, also called blood types, can be defined as the collection of blood and are based on the presence or absence of genetic antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Antigenic substances may be carbohydrates, glycolipids, proteins, or glycoproteins, depending on the blood system.
Q. Name any 2 facts about Blood Groups.
Ans: The two facts about Blood Groups are –
AB blood type is known as “normal recipient” because AB+ people can accept blood from any other blood type. AB- is a very common blood type, less than 1% of people. A person with AB blood type can get blood from all three negative blood types.
Blood type O is called a “universal supplier” because O+ is a blood group that usually occurs in the ABO type. About 37 to 40 percent of all people are diagnosed with this type of blood. O- is a rare blood group as it is found in 6 to 7 percent of the total population.