BlogNCERTOut Breeding Devices

Out Breeding Devices

Introduction

Pollen pistil interaction is the process of transferring pollen grains of the same plant to the pistil/stigma of the same or different plant, either by self-pollination or cross-pollination. The pistil is the female reproductive part of the flowering plant, while the pollen grains are part of the plant’s reproductive system. Pollen is the first step in pollen pistil interaction, followed by pollen adhesion to the skin. Now, we will be heading to our next phase, which is very exciting: the concept of plant breeding machines.

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    The Relationship Between Pollen Pistil Interaction and Outbreeding Devices

    The section deals with the concept of breeding machines and the relationship between the interaction of pollen pistils and outdoor breeding machines. Before we move on to the types of breeding machines outside, let’s understand what breeding machines are.

    What is the Definition of Outbreeding Devices?

    Breeding machines are methods/processes that plants are familiar with to prevent self-pollination. But why do plants use such substances? The main reasons are listed below.

    Inbreeding Depression: The reason for the adoption of such techniques by plants is that due to continued breeding, plants can develop a condition called inbreeding depression, which leads to unhealthy reproduction.

    • No Genetic Mutations: In your own right, due to the same genetic makeup of men and women, there is no genetic variation.
    • Unisexuality: If the plant is non-sexual, Outbreeding is the only option.
    • Unscrupulous Pollen Disposal: Release of pollen grains and acceptance of discrimination must go hand in hand for reproduction to take place. This prevents pollination.

    Now, let’s get to the main point of the category- types of breeding machines.

    Outbreeding Devices

    There are a number of tools that plants are familiar with to promote pollination, listed below:

    • Unisexuality: Unisexuality is a reproductive device in which a plant bears, whether male or female flowers. Besides, the flower is not hermaphrodite. This is also known as Dioecism.
    • Dichogamy: In this breeding device, discriminating and anther there are different maturation periods. Thus, depending on maturity, Dichogamy can be divided into two types:
    • Protandry: Androecium ripens before gynoecium. For example, maize crops.
    • Protogyny: Gynoecium matures before androecium.
    • Herkogamy: Herkogamy is a condition that occurs naturally when there is a natural barrier to the entry of pollen grains into the ovaries.
    • Self-Sterility: In this outdoor breeding machine, the plant has a gene that can recognize the same genes and does not allow pollen grains to explode. The independent gene is present in the ovule and the grain.
    • Heterostyly: In this outdoor breeding machine, discrimination and anther vary in levels, which prevents pollen grains from reaching the pollinator and pollinating them.
    • Pollen Prepotency: At pollen levels, pollen of a different flower ripens faster than that of the same flower, thus helping to prevent autogamy.

    These are the breeding equipment for plants. Now, if a question arises- Explain the interaction of pollen pistils and Outbreeding machines, one will be able to answer easily. The following section is the last part of the discussion and lists the steps for pollen pistil interaction.

    Pollen Pistil Interaction Steps

    Pollen does not always mean fertilization. For pollen to occur, the pistil needs to detect pollen of the same type. The pollen pistil interaction is not a small process. Thus, we need to understand the whole process of pollen pistil interaction, which results in effective fertilization. Listed below are steps for pollen pistil interaction:

    • The male plant produces pollen grains.
    • The pollen grains rest on the pistil of the female plant.
    • When pollen is compacted, the pistil is absorbed, while the incompatible ones are rejected.
    • When pollen is absorbed by the female plant, the grain forms pollen tubes and releases its contents and chemicals.
    • Pollen tubes go straight to the ovary in style.
    • As the pollen tube reaches the uterus, the male gamete enters the uterus and becomes synergic.

    This is the complete process of pollen pistil interaction required for successful fusion.

    We hope that all the concepts related to the interaction of pollen pistils and plant breeding machines are very clear. We have learned about both the interactions of pollen pistils and different outdoor breeding machines.

    Pollen is a process, in which plants rely on transferring pollen grains from anther to the skin or pistil. It can be cross-pollination or self-pollination. Many plants are bisexual or hermaphrodite that promotes pollen.

    The sequence of events, which takes place from the time the pollen is placed on the surface and until the entry of the pollen tube inside the ovule is called pollen pistil interaction. Pollination, the process of transferring pollen from a flower to the actions of the same flower or from the same flower to a different flower is the first step or first step in the merging of pollen pistils.

    FAQ’s

    Q. Describe the Three Outbreeding Devices Used by Plants to Prevent Pollen Acquisition. (any 3)

    Ans: The following are three Outbreeding tools used by plants to prevent self-pollination:

    Unisexuality: In sex, the plant bears, either male or female flowers. Also, the flower is not hermaphrodite. This is also known as Dioecism.

    Dichogamy: In this machine, discriminating and anther have different maturation times. Thus, depending on maturity, Dichogamy can be divided into two types:

    Protandry: Androecium ripens before gynoecium. Example: a corn plant.

    Protogyny: Gynoecium matures before androecium.

    Herkogamy: Herkogamy is a condition that occurs naturally when there is a natural barrier to the entry of pollen grains into the ovaries.

    Q. What are Outbreeding Devices in Plants and What are the Reasons Behind the Adoption of Such Devices?

    Ans: Outbreeding devices are the mechanisms/processes which the plants adapt to prevent self-pollination. Reasons for Outbreeding Mechanism

    Inbreeding Depression: The reason behind the adoption of such techniques by plants is that due to continued in-breeding, plants can develop a condition called inbreeding depression, leading to unhealthy offspring.

    No Genetic Variations: in self-pollination, due to the same genes of males and females, there are no genetic variations.

    Unisexuality: If the plant is unisexual, Outbreeding is the only alternative.

    Unsynchronized Pollen Release: The release of pollen grains and receptivity of stigma should be synchronized for the breeding to happen. This prevents self-pollination.

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