ChemistryAryl Halide Reactions – Halogenation, Nitration, Sulphonation and Friedel – Crafts Reaction

Aryl Halide Reactions – Halogenation, Nitration, Sulphonation and Friedel – Crafts Reaction

What is Aryl Halide?

An aryl halide is a compound composed of an aryl group bonded to a halide. The aryl group is typically a benzene ring, and the halide is typically a chloride, bromide, or iodide.

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    Electrophilic Substitution Reaction

    The electrophilic substitution reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which a molecule with a vacant orbital, known as an electrophile, reacts with a molecule that has a hydrogen atom bonded to a nitrogen or oxygen atom, known as a nucleophile. The vacant orbital of the electrophile is filled with a Lewis acid, which creates a new covalent bond between the two molecules.

    Aryl Halide Reactions

    One of the most important classes of organic reactions involve the substitution of a halogen atom in an aryl group with another functional group. The most common of these reactions is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation, in which an alkyl group is substituted for the halogen. The alkyl group is typically a methyl, ethyl, or propyl group.

    Reaction of Aryl Halide With Metals

    When an aryl halide reacts with a metal, the metal displaces the halide from the aromatic ring to form an organometallic compound. The organometallic compound is typically a stable, coordinatively unsaturated species that can undergo further reactions.

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