What is Enthalpy?
The enthalpy of a system is the internal energy of the system plus the product of the pressure and the volume of the system.
The enthalpy change (ΔH) is a measure of the heat energy transferred to or from a system. It is a state function, which means that its value depends only on the initial and final states of the system, not on the path taken between them.
The enthalpy change for a process is the sum of the heat energy transferred to the system by the surroundings and the work done by the system on the surroundings.
The symbol ΔH is used to represent the enthalpy change for a process.
Enthalpy of Reactions:
The enthalpy of reaction, H, is a measure of the heat absorbed or released by a chemical reaction. It is a measure of the change in the internal energy of a system. The enthalpy of reaction can be determined experimentally by measuring the change in temperature of a system as a reaction occurs.
The enthalpy of reaction is a thermodynamic property and is therefore dependent on the temperature of the system. The enthalpy of reaction is also dependent on the state of the reactants and products. The enthalpy of reaction is typically expressed in kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol).
System in Thermodynamics
A thermodynamic system is any quantity of matter or energy that is enclosed by boundaries that allow the exchange of energy between the system and its surroundings. The system can be as small as a single atom or molecule, or as large as the Earth or the entire universe.
Different Branches of Thermodynamics
The three main branches of thermodynamics are classical thermodynamics, statistical thermodynamics, and thermodynamic systems theory.
Classical thermodynamics is the oldest branch of thermodynamics and is focused on the study of the thermodynamic behavior of systems in equilibrium.
Statistical thermodynamics is the branch of thermodynamics that deals with the study of the thermodynamic behavior of systems in non-equilibrium.
Thermodynamic systems theory is the branch of thermodynamics that deals with the study of the thermodynamic behavior of systems composed of many subsystems.
Tips to study Thermodynamics
1. Understand the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
2. Understand the concepts of heat, work, and energy.
3. Understand the thermodynamic properties of fluids and solids.
4. Understand the principles of thermodynamic cycles.
5. Understand the thermodynamic behavior of gases and vapors.
6. Understand the thermodynamic properties of materials.
7. Understand the thermodynamic principles of power generation.
8. Understand the thermodynamic principles of refrigeration.