ChemistryHard Water – Formation, Measurement , Hardness, Effects and Softening

Hard Water – Formation, Measurement , Hardness, Effects and Softening

What is Meant by Hard Water? ;

Hard water is water that has high levels of minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. These minerals make the water “hard” because they make it difficult to dissolve soap and other detergents. This can cause a variety of problems, including scale build-up on pipes and appliances, reduced water flow, and reduced soap effectiveness.

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    Ions in Hard water

    Water that has a high mineral content is called hard water. Hard water contains high levels of calcium and magnesium ions. These ions can form a scale on surfaces such as pipes and cookware. The scale can reduce the water’s flow and can make cleaning difficult. Hard water can also cause a build-up of soap scum in showers and bathtubs.

    Hard Water in Boilers

    Water that has a high mineral content is called hard water. When this water is heated, the minerals form a scale that can build up on the inside of boilers and other water heating appliances. This scale can reduce the efficiency of the appliance, and can also cause it to break down.

    Permanent Hardness

    The mineralogical and physical character of a water that determines the amount of lime or calcium salts that are required to produce a given degree of water hardness. Permanent hardness is caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium salts.

    Effects

    The immediate effects of caffeine are an increase in alertness and a feeling of well-being. Caffeine also increases heart rate and respiration. The long-term effects of caffeine are an increase in the risk of heart disease and miscarriage.

    Softening

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