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A nitrogen gas generator is a device that produces nitrogen gas from the air. The nitrogen gas is used in many industrial and commercial applications, including the production of food, beverage, and pharmaceutical products. The nitrogen gas is also used to purge and clean equipment and pipelines.
The nitrogen gas generator works by passing air through a bed of activated charcoal. The activated charcoal removes the oxygen from the air, leaving nitrogen gas behind. The nitrogen gas is then collected and stored in a tank or pipeline.
Laboratory Method of Preparation of Dinitrogen (N2)
The laboratory method of preparing dinitrogen from ammonia involves the following steps:
1. A round-bottomed flask is placed on a ring stand and filled with a sodium hydroxide solution.
2. The flask is fitted with a rubber stopper and a dropping funnel.
3. The dropping funnel is connected to a condenser, and the condenser is connected to a receiver flask.
4. The ammonia gas is passed through the sodium hydroxide solution to produce ammonium hydroxide.
5. The ammonium hydroxide is then heated to produce dinitrogen.
Other Methods of Preparation of N2O
There are three main methods of preparing N2O: the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (ADN), the decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide (DNP), and the fractional distillation of nitrous oxide.
Thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate:
Ammonium nitrate can be decomposed thermally to give N2O and water. The reaction is:
2NH4NO3 → N2O + 2H2O
The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate is the most common method of preparing N2O. The reaction is exothermic, so the ammonium nitrate is heated to increase the rate of the reaction.
Decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide:
Dinitrogen pentoxide can be decomposed to give N2O and oxygen. The reaction is:
2N2O5 → 4NO2 + O2
The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide is used to prepare N2O in large quantities. The reaction is exothermic, so the dinitrogen pentoxide is heated to increase the rate of the reaction.
Fractional distillation of nitrous oxide:
Nitrous oxide can be fractionally distilled to give a mixture of N2O and nitrogen. The fractional distillation of nitrous oxide is used to prepare N2O in small quantities. The reaction is
Manufacturing of N2O4
Nitrogen dioxide is produced by the oxidation of ammonia with oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst:
The reaction is exothermic, and the heat released is used to vaporize liquid nitric acid:
The vaporized nitric acid is then contacted with gaseous nitrogen dioxide, forming liquid nitrogen tetroxide:
Properties of Dinitrogen (N2)
-Dinitrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas.
-It is nonflammable and nontoxic.
-Dinitrogen is the most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere, making up 78% of the air.
-It is used in the production of fertilizers and explosives.
Combination with Electropositive Metals
Aluminum can be alloyed with other metals to form alloys with improved properties. Some common aluminum alloys are:
The equations that govern the behavior of plasmas are the same as the equations of classical mechanics, but with the addition of the electron gas equation.
The electron gas equation is a modification of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation that accounts for the electrons in a plasma.
The electron gas equation is
is the electron density
is the electron temperature
is the electron drift velocity
is the collision frequency
is the electron mobility
The electron gas equation can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the average electron velocity, and the average electron density.
Uses of Dinitrogen (N2)
N2 is used in a variety of industrial processes, including the production of ammonia, nitric acid, and other nitrogen-containing compounds. It is also used as a inert gas in many applications, including welding and metal fabrication, and as a protective gas in semiconductor manufacturing.
Industrial Applications of Nitrogen
Nitrogen is used in a number of industrial applications. One common application is in the production of ammonia, which is used in the production of fertilizers. Nitrogen is also used in the production of plastics, explosives, and other chemicals.