ChemistryRefining – Various Methods

Refining – Various Methods

Refining Definition

Refining is the process of removing impurities from a substance. This can be done through a variety of methods, including distillation, filtration, and crystallization.

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    Distillation

    is a separation process used to purify a liquid mixture by heating it to a temperature where the vaporized component molecules are more volatile than the liquid molecules.

    Liquidation

    The term liquidation refers to the process of selling all of a company’s assets to repay its creditors. In a typical liquidation, the company’s management will work with a bankruptcy lawyer to sell off the company’s assets and use the proceeds to repay its creditors. Unsecured creditors, such as suppliers, typically receive the least amount of money in a liquidation, while secured creditors, such as banks that have a mortgage on the company’s property, typically receive the most. In some cases, a company’s shareholders may also receive money in a liquidation, depending on the company’s assets and the timing of the liquidation.

    Poling

    Poling is a technique used in canoeing and kayaking. It is a method of propulsion used to increase the speed of a canoe or kayak. It is accomplished by pushing against the bottom of the boat with a pole.

    Electrolytic Refining

    Electrolytic refining is a process that uses electricity to extract pure metals from their ores. The process is used to refine metals such as copper, aluminum, and gold.

    In electrolytic refining, the metal ore is placed in a container called an electrolytic cell. A negatively charged electrode, or cathode, is placed in the cell, and a positively charged electrode, or anode, is placed in the cell. A solution containing the metal to be extracted is also placed in the cell.

    When a current is passed through the cell, the metal is extracted from the ore and deposited on the cathode. The purity of the metal can be controlled by adjusting the current and the composition of the solution.

    Vapour-Phase Refining

    Refining by the vapour phase is a process that was once used to purify nickel. In this process, the nickel is heated until it vaporizes. The vaporized nickel is then passed through a series of filters, which removes any impurities.

    Zone Refining

    The refinery is the heart of the oil and gas industry and is responsible for converting crude oil into finished products that can be sold on the market. The refinery process begins by heating the crude oil to a temperature high enough to vaporize the hydrocarbons. The vaporized hydrocarbons are then passed through a series of distillation towers where the different hydrocarbons are separated by their boiling points. The lightest hydrocarbons, such as propane and butane, are collected at the top of the tower, while the heaviest hydrocarbons, such as asphalt and tar, are collected at the bottom. The middle hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are collected in the middle of the tower.

    The refinery also converts the crude oil into different types of products by adding various chemicals. For example, the refinery can add sulfur to produce sulfuric acid, or chlorine to produce hydrochloric acid. The refinery can also add different types of catalysts to the crude oil to produce different types of products. For example, the refinery can add a catalyst to produce gasoline, or a catalyst to produce diesel fuel.

    Chromatographic Method

    Chromatography is a method for separating mixtures into their component parts. The mixture is dissolved in a solvent, which is then poured onto a stationary phase. The mixture travels along the stationary phase as the solvent evaporates. The different components of the mixture will travel different distances, depending on their attraction to the stationary phase. The components can then be separated by collecting the different fractions that have been separated by the stationary phase.

    Chromatography can be used to separate a mixture into its component parts based on their physical properties, such as size, shape, and charge. It can also be used to separate a mixture into its component parts based on their chemical properties, such as polarity and solubility.

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