Class 11 History Notes Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization
- China and Japan present a marked physical contrast.
- China is a vast continental country with many climatic zones.
- China and Japan are situated in far East Asia.
- China dominated the East in the beginning of the 19th century.
- China is dominated by three major rivers. These rivers are Huang He, the Yangtse and the Pearl river.
- A large part of China is mountainous.
- The most dominant ethnic group of China is ‘Han’ and the major language is Chinese ‘Putonghua’.
- Chinese foods reflect the regional diversity. The best known is southern or cantonese cuisine.
- Japan was divided into more than 250 domains under the rule of lords called daimyo.
- Japan is situated in the Pacific ocean.
- Japan is a string of islands. It is an archipelago consisting of more than 3,000 islands. Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido are the four largest islands of Japan.
- Japan is also known as the ‘Land of Rising Sun’.
- The Shoguns made Edo, the capital of Japan.
- The tradition of animal rearing is not prevalent.
- Edo is modem Tokyo.
- Japanese emperor was known as Mikado.
- Uighur, Hui, Manchu and Tibetan are the other nationalities of the Chinese.
- The Samurai were warriors and helped the Shogun in running the administration.
- Printing was done with wood blocks in Japan. The Japanese were not interested in European printing.
- Edo, the capital city of Japan became the most populated city in the middle of the 17th century.
- The Meiji restoration is termed as one of the most momentous events in the Japanese history.
- In 1871, under Meiji’s rule feudalism was abolished.
- Tokyo University was established under the rule of Meiji in 1877.
- Military reforms were also introduced during Meiji rule.
- In 1872, modem banking institutions were launched.
- Under Meiji’s rule new constitution was introduced.
- In 1889, Japan adopted the new constitution.
- Miyake Setsurei was a well-known Japanese philosopher.
- Miyake Setsurei believed that every nation must develop its special talent in the interest of the world civilization.
- In Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95, China faced a humiliating defeat at the hands of Japanese.
- On April 17,1895, Treaty of Shimoneski was signed between China and Japan.
- Defeat of China at the hands of Japan made China vulnerable.
- The Chinese declared after the war that both China and Japan needed reforms for modernization.
- Sino-Japanese war served the basis for the Anglo-Japanese alliance in 1902.
- Two opium wars were fought between China and England between 1839-42 and 1856-60 respectively.
- After the decline of Manchu empire, a republic was established in 1911 in China.
- In 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen formed a national party of China. It was known as Guomindang.
- The People’s Republic of China came into existence in 1949.
- In 1949, Communist Government was established in China and began a new age in the history of China.
- Soviet: Elected council of peasants and workers
- Daimyo: Lords of the domain under their possession.
- Shogun: Official title of sell-Taishogun.
- Zaibastu: Large business houses controlled by individual families.
- Triangular trade: Trade carried out among three countries.
- Comintern: Communist International
- Meiji: Enlightened rule
- Fukoku Kyohei: Government slogan given during Meiji period, which means rich country and strong army.
- Dim sum: Touch your heart.
|1603||Tokugawa Ieyasu establishes the Edo Shogunate.|
|1630||Japan closes country to Western powers except for restricted trade with the Dutch.|
|1839 – 60||Two Opium Wars. These wars were fought between China and Britain.|
|1868||Restoration of Meiji|
|1872||Compulsory education system. First railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama|
|1889||Meiji Constitution was enacted.|
|1894 – 95||War between Japan and China|
|1904 – 05||War between Japan and Russia|
|1912||Sun Yat-sen found Guomingdang|
|1914 – 18||The period of First World War|
|1921||CCP was founded.|
|1925||Universal male suffrage was granted.|
|1926 – 49||Civil Wars in China|
|1931||Japan’s invasion on China|
|1945||Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were dropped.|
|1949||People’s Republic of China Chiang Kai- shek found Republic of China in Taiwan|
|1956||Japan becomes a member of the United Nations.|
|1962||China attacks on India over border dispute|