HistoryAssertion (A): Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. Reason (R): In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia.

Assertion (A): Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.


Reason (R): In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia.


  1. A
    Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. B
    Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  3. C
    (A) is true but (R) is false.
  4. D
    (A) is false but (R) is true. 

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    Solution:

    In 19th century Europe, liberal politics emphasised respect for each person's rights and equality before the law. It focused on the removal of aristocracy and ecclesiastical privileges, the construction of a constitution and representative government through parliament, as well as the inviolability of private property, drawing its essential concepts from the French Revolution.
    A Zollverein, or customs union, was created in 1834 at Prussia's request. The vast majority of german states participated. To economically reunite all of Germany was the goal of Zollverein. It helped to arouse and raise national emotion among the German people by fusing personal and local issues. It was a liberal trade policy to instil nationalism among the German states.
    Thus, both the Assertion and Reason statements are correct, and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Reason.
     
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