Solution:Italy was divided into seven states by the nineteenth century, but only one of them, Sardinia-Piedmont, was controlled by the Italian princely house.
Italy, like Germany, has a long history of political separation. The Italians were dispersed across several dynastic states and the multinational Habsburg Empire. Italy was divided into seven states in the middle of the nineteenth century, with only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, ruled by an Italian princely house. The northern regions were ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs, the centre by the Pope, and the southern regions by the Spanish Bourbon kings. Even the Italian language has not evolved into a unified form, with numerous regional and local variations. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini aimed to put together a systematic program for the unitary Italian Republic.