None of the above
Solution:In Russia, kolkhoz was another word for community farming. Joseph Stalin initiated the collectivisation initiative. Kolkhoz revenues were distributed to peasants. Collective farming provides more benefits than individual farming. Those who cannot afford the implements can obtain them. This would have helped the government because food grains were scarce then. Joseph Stalin held the Kulaks accountable for the grain shortfall in Russia from 1927 to 1928. As a result, it became imperative to get rid of them. They were seen as the impoverished peasants' class adversaries. From 1929, Stalin's party forced peasants to grow jointly.