Change and Development in Industrial Society – CBSE Notes for Class 12 Sociology
• There are several classes in a city. Elite, upper class, upper middle class, middle class, lower middle class, lower class and below poverty line.
• Although we do share common infrastructure (walk facilities, monuments).
• But there are differences, as people are recognised on the basis of acclaimed status e.g., Bollywood actors, actresses, directors etc. Only the actors reap the benefits and the stunt artists, dancer, etc are not noticed.
• Marketing, advertisements, trailers have really helped Bollywood.
• Different classes of people who eat at all different places, some eat at 5 star restaurants while some eat on the roadside.
• Major changes occurring in a city in urban areas can be attributed to science and technology.
• The professions that the women would choose were quite limited (teachers, nurses) but now there are many options but some fields are male dominated as fighter pilots.
• Because of science and technology a lot of disparities have been bridged.
• A lower class can became an upper caste by working hard.
• Even today society depends upon the people inhibiting the place, the area.
Images of Industrial Society
The social aspect of industrialisation:
1. Face to face interaction is limited compared to rural areas.
2. There is urbanisation whenever there are industries, cities come up.
3. With growth of industrialisation norms collapse criminal activities and corruption
— The person gets alienated from the society, no time to interact with family, it is extremely exhausting, monotonous and depressing.
1. Better paid jobs are available and standard of living.
2. Caste distinction is not as much as in rural areas.
3. Freedom of thought expression, individualise.
1. There is a distinction in terms of class, standard of life, lifestyle.
2. Class distinctions are quite high gap between the rich and poor and is increasing rapidly.
3. Increase in crime rate.
4. Alienation increases.
Industrialisation and Modernisation
• Industries came up, life changed drastically to use science and technology, modernisation is inevitable.
• Started thinking nationally.
• The modernisation theory grew different societies at different stages of modernisation but they are all working towards the broadness of a global view.
• This concept of modernisation came up in the west and that is why they are so highly developed.
Industrialisation in the society (India)
Features of organised sector
1. 10 people are employed.
2. Rules and regulations are already set.
3. Allowances, bonuses, provident funds are social implication of unorganised sector.
4. Do not have any savings
• When they retire they get money from their kids.
• No security for old age dependent on children.
5. There are laws for security of unorganised sector by the government not implemented.
• Minimum wage has been set but not given properly.
• No records, on paper they show it differently.
• They are on the mercy of the employer.
6. In unorganised sector the people cannot fight on ethereal grounds.
Social Implication of Organised Sector
1. Fixed rules and regulations.
2. Mode of payment has to be transparent on both sides—employee and employer.
3. There is a proper procedure to be followed by employer or vice versa.
4. Employee cannot be removed from the job without prior notice.
5. An employee cannot be removed until their retirement age in the government.
6. There are a lot of perks gratuity, bonuses, provident fund, travel allowance.
Industrialisation in Early Years in Independent India
1. Jute, iron, cotton, railways, coal prospered during the British rule and continued to prosper even after Independence.
• The government was in control of the public sector.
• The government decided that some industries should be privatised like coal, jute.
• Now, India started having a mixed sector combination of public and private.
• But some sectors were not privatised-railways, defence, coal mines, telecom services.
• During the colonial rule, the port cities were Calcutta, Bombay, Madras.
• Now many other cities have become very important Coimbatore, Faridabad, Pune, Bangaluru slowly became industrial cities.
• Government realised that many people were employed and have started small scale industries/cottage industries and the government began to support them (jute bags, pots, carpets, unorganised sector 70%.
• Around 30% is organised large scale industries.
Changes in Indian Industries: Globalisation and Liberalisation
• It is in the 1900’s when globalisation came to India.
• Lot of changes and rules were introduced in the industries by WTO.
• Globalisation is the interrelationship between local economy and global economy.
• It involves all aspects of life social, economic, cultural, political, ecological.
• Liberalisation is the economic aspect of globalisation.
• Removal of trade barriers, tarrifs, taxes, international boundaries easy to cross borders, people, commodities, capital, technology.
• With the coming of globalisation large and small MNC’s grew tremendously.
• The foreign companies started investing in India and began setting up branches.
• There is a lot of unemployment in large scale industries.
• Wages are low as the small scale industries want to attach themselves to the large scale industries.
• Outsourcing is mainly done by private sectors but some government sectors also out source.
How are Jobs found?
• In older days it was from word of mouth personal relationships “near and dear friends”.
• Later it moved to newspapers, magazines, ads.
• Nowadays, there are websites and HR requirement of major companies like MNC’s.
• Employment exchanges register your name and qualification and they call you whenever there is a job available.
• Very influential people also known as mistris in small factories, towns and even cities.
• They are workers in the factories.
• Many companies have also started outsourcing (outsource security, gardening, catering or outsource various parts of the product and may not be manufactured by the company).
• Cost of production goes down can concentrate on final product.
• No additional hurdles for trade unions.
• Do not want union to be formed in different sectors.
• If the supplier do not supply products on time it is upto the company to make up lost time and make the workers work overtime.
• This is not done only for money but goodwill or reputation of company.
• The quality may not be upto the mark.
• One has to be constantly vigilant to involve that the quality is maintained.
Times Slavery-Slaves to time
• The concept of Taylorism has been applied to the IT sector in which each person does his/her work at a given time span.
• Night out —» The professionals work the whole night but this is not the same as overtime but this is voluntary.
• Fixed time —» There is no fixed time, but have to work for 8 hours.
• Can select their time slot, working hours. –
• There are three cities which are the hub of IT
1. Bengaluru-Silicon city
2. Hyderabad-Hitech city
3. Gurgaon-Cyber city
• To cater to the needs of the people eating joints, shops, hotels, etc are open overnight creating employment and cater to these people.
Three reasons for staying overnight
1. To finish work.
2. If you are unable to finish your work, the other persons will not be able to do their work.
3. They do it to please the boss.
• Joint families are going up as both parents are working and they need to keep grandparents and children secure.
• The value system cannot be taught by the paid help.
• In same places it wasn’t good (small factories) not hygienic insecurity.
• Working condition in Mines.
• In 1952 an Act called the Mines Act was passed. The government said that owners of the mines have to follow certain acts/rules.
• One regulation is that workers have to be paid proper wages and each person should know the number of hours he is working in the mines (hours should be fixed).
• All safety rules have to be followed as lives are otherwise in danger.
• Applicable to every factory.
• Unfortunately many small factories do not follow the rules that are laid down.
• Large factories have to follow rules as a lot is at stake as they are in the public eye.
• All. people in the mines are not registered. Since they are not registered properly in case something happens to them their families cannot get compensation.
• If any worker is injured no compensation is paid.
• There are 2 types of workers in mines.
• Underground (inside the ground)
• Fumes, which if inhaled can cause serious problem.
• Lung infections, tuberculosis.
• Collapsing of walls and roofs.
• Lack of ventilation, ageing fast, poor eye sight
• One the ground Problems:
• Dig up the mines and do not fill up the pits before moving to another site so other workers can fall and injure themselves.
• They are exposed to weather condition (sun and rain) and result in skin diseases.
• Sometimes they used to blast the ground and if precautions are not taken people can get seriously injured or die.
• Unhygienic conditions.
• Long working hours —overburdening, fear of insecurity
• Fear of insecurity (ready to work for low wages)
• Living conditions are poor.
• Women who work are paid less, no respect for them due to inefficiency and ignorance they are so overworked and exhausted that they have no time for social interactions (they get drunk and sleep in their free time they have).
• No time for their family.
• Life is very tough so women are becoming independent and self aware, getting educated taking their own decisions and are quite self sufficient.
House Based Industries
• Many house based Industries are there in India.
• It is not as rosy as it looks.
• Most of them are in unorganised sectors.
• Carpets, borders, Zari, match boxes, bags, bidi are some of the examples.
• Mainly done by women and children.
• Paid by single piece, dozen, box etc depending on the product.
• Tendu leaves (leaves in which the bidi is made): Tendu leaves are collected and are soaked and the women and children make the bidi’s and sell it back to the contractors. The leaves are collected by the workers of private owners and government officials and are handed to the forest officials who auction the leaves to private owners.
• These private owners employ contractors who go to the village and hand over the tendu leaves to women and children.
• Contractors collect the bidis and the women and children are paid meagerly. These bundles go back to factories. In factories a signature label and scent is added. It is given to distributors who give it in wholesale market to shopkeepers who sell it to us.
Strikes and Unions
Strike is a situation where workers restrain from work because they want better wages. It is a very risky proposition for the workers as the employer may not take them back after the strike.
Lockout is when the management closes down these factory or industry for some time. This may be due to:
1. Bankruptcy 2. Case pending on the factory
3. Selling it off 4. Exchange of hands
In a lockout unlike strike the management has to pay a compensation or take back the employees.
Union is an association formed to protect the interest of the factory workers.
TAI (Textile Association of India) by Gandhi was the first trade association.
Bombay Textile Mill Strike-1982
It was led by the trade union leader Dr. Datta Samant.
Affected quarter million workers and their families.
Trade Union Association formed to ensure the welfare of the people.
They wanted higher wages.
Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh-Trade union supported by Congress in 1982.
The union need to be approved by the government.
This act was given by BIRA—Bombay Industrial Relation Act.
Strike consisted of 1000 workers.
They may not get their jobs back.
Unfortunately the mill got Badli workers so the work in the factory did not stop.
After 2-2y years the strike was a failure.
Many workers did not get their jobs back.
Very few got jobs back.
Workers went back to their villages to look for other jobs.
Went to other villages for work in factories.
Some took up casual labourer jobs and the some led to migrate which affected their family life.
• Mill owners stopped buying new machineries and didn’t upgrade them.
• They sold it to property dealers.
• This was the time when mills disappeared and buildings came up.
• The whole scenario in Bombay changed
Words That Matter
1. Commercialisation: Commercialisation is the process of transforming something into a product, service or activity which has economic value and can be traded in the market.
2. Decentralisation: Decentralisation refers to a process of gradual devolution or change : of functions, resources and decision-making powers to the lower-level democratically
3. Digitalisation: Digitalisation refers to the process whereby information is produced as a universal binary code, and can thus be easily processed, stored and circulated at faster speed across communication technologies like internet, satellite transmission, telephones, fiber optic lines etc.
4. Disinvestment: It includes privatisation of public sector or government companies.
5. Division of labour: Division of labour is specialisation of tasks in ways that many involve exclusion from some opportunities, therefore, closure of labour opportunities exist in employment or by gender.
6. Diversification: Diversification is the spread of investment into different kinds of economic activities in order to minimize risks.
7. Fordism: Fordism refer to a system of production made popular by the American industrialist, Henry Ford in the early part of the 20th century. Ford popularized the assembly line method of mass production of a standardized product (cars). This age also led to payment of better wages to the workers and social welfare policies being executed by both industrialists and the state.
8. Import-substitution development strategy: It has the import substitution substitutes externally produced goods and services, especially basic requirements such as food, water, energy. The notion of import substitution was popularized in the 1950s and 1960s to promote economic independence of development in developing countries.
9. Industrialization: Industrialization is the development of modem forms of industry – factories, machines and large-scale production processes. Industrialization has been one of the main sets of processes influencing the social world over the past two centuries.
10. Means of production: The means whereby the production of material goods is done in a society, including not just technology but the social relations between producers.
11. Micro-electronics: Micro-electronics is the branch of electronics dealing with the miniaturization of components and circuits. The major change in the field of micro¬electronics came in 1971 with the invention by an Intel engineer of the microprocessor that is a computer on a chip. In 1971, 2,300 transistors were packed on a chip of the size of a thumbtack, in 1993, there were 35 million transistors.