CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Nationalism in India HOTS
Q-1. Carefully study the given paragraph from your textbook and answer the questions that follows :
As the news of the Jallianwala Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes and clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people: Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs ; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed. Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
(i) Which Movement was called off by Gandhiji ?
(ii) Why was the Movement launched ?
Ans. (i) The Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22).
(ii) The Rowlatt Act of 1919 had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Another reason was the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh of 1919.
Q.2. Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clampdown on nationalists.
Ans. (i) Rowlett Act: Rowlett Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
(ii) Imposing martial law : Whenever the nationalists used to launch a mass movement the government responded with martial law. During Rowlatt Satyagraha, Non-Cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience movement, etc, the government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people : satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.
(iii) Putting the nationalist behind the bars: During every mass movement the nationalist leaders were picked up and put behind the bars. For example during Rowlatt Satyagraha most of the local leaders were arrested and during Civil Disobedience movement Abul Ghaffar, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders were arrested and put behind the bars.
Q.3. Mention any three efforts made by Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights. [CBSE March 2011]
Ans. (i) He said that the Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
(ii) He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
(iii) He signed Poona Pact with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar through which some seats were reserved for them in provincial and central legislative councils.
Q.4. How did the British government respond to protests, clashes and attacks by the Indian against the Jallianwala Bagh incident ? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) The government responded with brutal repression.
(ii) Seeking to humiliate and terrorise people, Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(iii) They were forced to crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs.
People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab) were bombed..
Q.5. Explain the contribution of the various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement. [CBSE 2014]
Various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement for different reasons. Choose any four classes and explain their reason to participate in the movement. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. Following are the contributions of various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Rich peasants : Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As the government refused to reduce revenue demands, they in great numbers participated in the boycott programmes. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
(ii) Women : The women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
(iii) Business class : A large number of merchants and industrialists supported this movement. They reacted against colonial policies that restricted their business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(iv) The industrial working class : The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers except in Nagpur. They selectively adopted some of the ideas of Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
Q.6. What did the image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore portray? [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure.
(ii) She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
(iii) This mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(iv) Mother figure shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing.
Q.7. Who designed Swaraj Flag in 1921 ? Mention any two features of this flag.
Which flag did Gandhiji design in 1921 ? Mention its special features. [CBSE 2014]
Who designed the Swaraj Flag ? What were the features of this flag ? How was it used as a symbol of defiance ? [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag.
(ii) It was given a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Q.8. ‘Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and sparking in them the feeling of nationalism.’ Give two evidences to support above statement. [CBSE 2011]
State the icons and symbols that advocated nationalism in India.
Ans. (i) The image of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India, the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure-calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power.
(ii) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal a tricolour flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of the British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag.