Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
1 Mark Questions
Give the meaning of the digital divide. (Delhi 2014)
A digital divide is an economic and social inequality arising in the countries due to unequal access and use of knowledge or Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
Define the term ‘quaternary activities’. (Delhi 2014, All Indio 2009)
Quaternary activities refer to the more intellectual occupations whose task is to think, research and develop ideas. It is concerned with high-order of professional and administrative services, information generation, processing and transmission.
Define the term ‘tertiary activities’. (All India 2013)
Tertiary activities are activities related to providing sendees. They are different from production and do not process or manufacture goods directly. Professionally skilled people and trained labour are required in these activities, e.g. transport, communication, etc.
Give any two examples of quaternary activities. (All India 2013,12)
Examples of quaternary activities are:
- Collection of information.
- Production of information.
Give the meaning of retail trading services. (All India 2013,2011)
Retail trading services link the producers with consumers. It is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to consumers. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks, online order, etc are examples of non-store retail trading.
Give any two examples of tertiary activities. Delhi 2012
Examples of tertiary activities are trade and commerce and transport.
Who is an empowered worker? Delhi 2012
Empowered workers are people who are engaged in re-arrangement and interpretation and the use and evaluation of new technologies. They come under the category of quinary activities.
Define the term ‘tourism.’ (All Indio 2012)
Travelling with the motive of recreation rather than business is called tourism. It is a business of providing hotels, restaurants, entertainment, etc for people who are travelling.
3 Marks Questions
Explain any three characteristics of quaternary activities. (All Indio 2011)
The three characteristics of quaternary activities are as follows:
- Quaternary activities centre around research and development and may be seen as an advanced form of services involving specialised knowledge and technical skills.
- Quaternary activities involve the collection, production and dissemination of information.
- Like some of the tertiary functions, quaternary activities can also be outsourced. They are not tied to resources, affected by the environment or necessarily localised by markets.
Explain any three characteristics of periodical markets of rural areas in the world. (All indio 2010)
The three characteristics of periodical markets of rural areas in the world are as follows:
- Periodical markets in rural areas are found where there are no regular markets. Local periodical markets are organised at different intervals.
- These may be weekly, bi-weekly markets and people from the surrounding areas meet their demand.
- These markets are held on specific days and move from one place to another. The shopkeepers thus, remain busy on all the days while a large area is served by them.
What are the two factors affecting tourism in the world? Explain each factor with example. All India 2010
The two factors affecting tourism in the world are:
Demand It is the prime factor for tourism. For last few centuries, the demand for recreational and entertainment related activities have increased significantly. The living of the people is being standardised and the nature of work is creating demand for tourism.
Transport The second important factor that affects the tourism sector is transport. The development in transport sector increases the demand for tourism. The easy accessibility to tourist locations and places encourages people to move or visit there. The expansion of air and rail network in the last decade has influenced tourism in increasing the number of tourists. Apart from this, the improvement in infrastructure as tourist spots has also increased demand for tourism.
‘Outsourcing has resulted in opening up a large number of job opportunities in several countries.’ Analyse the statement with three suitable examples. (HOTS; Delhi 2009)
Outsourcing has resulted in the opening up of a large number of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries. Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers are available. These are also out-migrating countries. But with the work available in the form of outsourcing, the migration from these countries has come down.
This can be explained through these examples:
- The Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (KPO) industry includes research and development, e-learning, business research, etc.
- The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry involves highly skilled workers. It is information driven knowledge outsourcing.
- Data processing is another IT related service that employs large number of people in Asian countries.
How does the climate of a region attract tourists? Explain with examples from different regions of the world. All India 2009
The climatic conditions of any region decide the demand for tourism. The climate of a region attracts tourists in the following ways:
- People from colder places want to visit warm places as tourist. That’s why the Mediterranean lands and Southern Europe, due to their considerable higher temperature, sunny days and less rainfall attract tourists from Europe.
- People from warmer regions love to visit colder places. That’s why tourists from Northern plains of India prefer to go to tourist places located in the Himalayan region or other hill stations.
- Climatic conditions of a region also provide some adventurous activities to do and attract tourists, e.g. ice skating and skiing in snowy regions, sea surfing on beaches, etc.
Compare the features of rural and urban marketing centres of the world in three points. Delhi 2008
Comparison between the features of rural and urban marketing centres are given below:
|Basis||Rural Marketing Centres||Urban Marketing Centres|
|They provide services to nearby settlements.||They serve the needs of a large area as compared to rural marketing centres.|
|Nature of services||They sen/e as trading centres of quasi-urban type. Personal and professional services are not well-developed here.||They provide specialised urban services. They provide ordinary goods and services as well as many of the specialised goods and services.|
|Types of services||They are local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have mandis (wholesale markets) and also retailing areas.||Urban centres offer manufactured goods, as well as many specialised markets, develop, e.g. markets for labour, housing, semi or finished products, services of educational institutions and professionals such as teachers, lawyers, physicians, etc.|
5 Marks Questions
What is tourism? Analyse any four tourist attractions in the world. (Delhi 2016)
Define the term tourism. Explain any four factors which attract tourists in the world. (Delhi 2013)
Tourism is travel which is done for the purpose of recreation rather than business. It is one of the largest sectors of tertiary activities in terms of providing employment. It also generates the largest revenue. The four factors which attract tourists in the world are as follows:
Climate The climatic conditions of any region decide the demand for tourism. People from colder places want to visit warm places and vice versa. People from hilly terrain want to visit beaches and people living around sea-shore wish to visit hilly areas, e.g. the Mediterranean lands and Southern Europe, due to their considerable higher temperature during winters attract tourists from Europe.
Landscape Attractive environment like mountains, lakes, spectacular sea coasts and landscapes not completely altered by man are important tourist destinations.
History and Art The archaeological site attracts more people because of its rich past. The area with historical remains like castles, forts, battle fields, palaces, religious monuments, excavation sites are tourist attractions.
Culture and Economy For experiencing ethnic and local customs, tourists like to visit a place. Besides, if a region provides the needs of tourists at a cheap cost, it is likely to become very popular.
What is medical tourism? Explain the scope of medical services for overseas patients in India. (All India 2015)
When medical treatment is combined with international tourism activity, it leads itself to what is commonly known as medical tourism. The scope of medical tourism for overseas patients in India is as follows:
- In 2005, about 55,000 patients from USA visited India for treatment. In this way, India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.
- It bring foreign currency to India.
- World class hospitals with latest technology are located in metropolitan cities of India. These hospitals cater to patients all over the world.
- This kind of tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India. Therefore, medical tourism has wide scope in India.
‘Services are very important aspect for economic development of a country.’ Analyse the statement by explaining five components of a service sector. (HOTS; Delhi 2011)
Service sector is very important for the development of economy in the world. It is related to all kinds of services like education, health, welfare, business services, etc in exchange of payments. This sector also provides employment to a large number of people.
The major components of services are:
- Business services like advertising, legal services, public relations and counselling.
- Finance, insurance and real estate includes banking services.
- Wholesale and retail trading with the producers and consumers.
- Transport and communication such as railway, roadway, shipping, airline services, etc.
- Entertainment and mass media such as television, radio, films, magazines and newspapers.
Value Based Questions
Cities of developed and developing countries reflect marked differences in their planning and development. Which values lead to development of these cities?
The values which leads to development of these cities are:
- Mass-Centric policy
- Democratic principles
“Tertiary activities include both production and exchange. The production involves the provision of services that are consumed. The output is indirectly measured in terms of wages and salaries. Exchange involves trade, transport and communication facilities that are used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities therefore involve the commercial output of services rather than the production of tangible goods.” What values can be learnt from above passage?
The passage shows us the values of:
- Participation of community
- Public welfare
- Economic development
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