Study MaterialsCBSE NotesCBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2018 Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2018 Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2018 Delhi

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    • All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
    • Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
    • Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
    • Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
    • Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
    • In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
    • Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.

    Question 1.
    Identify the reason responsible for the people’s disliking of the National Emergency imposed in 1975. [1] Answer:
    During the emergency, imposed in 1975 by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, people thought that in the name of the emergency, powers given by the constitution to citizens were suspended, including Fundamental Rights.

    Question 2.
    Explain any one difference between the ideologies represented by the US and the USSR during the Cold War period. [1] Answer:
    Difference between US and USSR—US represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism. Whereas, Soviet Union was committed to the ideology socialism and communism.

    Question 3.
    Highlight any one advantage of the popular movements. . [1] Answer:
    One advantage of anti-arrack movement was, equal representation to women in politics during the nineties. Addition of the 73rd and 74th amendments have granted reservation to women in local level political offices.

    Question 4.
    How did the ‘Chipko Movement’ get its name ? [1] Answer:
    When contractors came to cut the trees of the forest in villages of Uttarakhand, the village ladies, children and men embraced the trees and did not allow the contractors to cut those trees. Hence, this movement was called as “CHIPKO MOVEMENT”.

    Question 5.
    Which one of the following statements is ‘true’ about the constraints on American hegemony ? [1] (a) The increasing power of Russia.
    (b) The widespread terrorism in the world.
    (c) The institutional structure of the American State itself.
    (d) The rise of the India as a new economic power.
    (c) The institutional structure of the American State itself.

    Question 6.
    Mention any two environmental issues that have become the concern of global politics. [1 × 2 = 2] Answer:
    Two environmental issues that have become the concern of global politics were :
    (i) According to the Human Development Report 2006 of the United Nations Development Programme, 1.2 billion people in developing countries have no access to clean water and 2.6 billion have no access to basic sanitation etc., which is resulting in the increasing death rate of more than three million children every year.

    (ii) Natural forests which help in stabilising the climate moderate water supplies and harbour a majority of the planet’s biodiversity on land—are being cut down and people are being displaced. The loss of biodiversity continues due to the destruction of habitat in areas which are rich in species.

    Question 7.
    Assess any two consequences of shock therapy. [1 × 2 = 2] Answer:
    Two consequences of shock therapy are :

    • Economic set-up after disintegration in Russia, 90% of the state controlled industrial complex were put up for sale for private individuals and companies. Thus, this led to the virtual disappearance of all state controlled industries.
    • The value of Rouble, the Russian currency declined very rapidly. The GDP of Russia in 1999 was below what it was in 1989. People lost all their savings due to high rate of inflation.

    Question 8.
    Match the facts given in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful way :[1/2 × 4 = 2]

    Column ’A’ Column ’B’
    (a) Proponent of two- nation theory. (i) Sukumar Sen
    (b) Raised the demand for a separate state in 1952. (ii) M. A. Jinnah
    (c) First Election Commissioner of India. (iii) C. Rajagopalachari
    (d)Founder of the Swatantra Party. (iv) Potti Sreeramulu


    Column ’A’ Column ’B’
    (a) Proponent of two- nation theory. (ii) M. A. Jinnah
    (b) Raised the demand for a separate state in 1952. (iv) Potti Sreeramulu
    (c) First Election Commissioner of India. (i) Sukumar Sen
    (d)Founder of the Swatantra Party. (iii) C. Rajagopalachari

    Question 9.
    In your opinion, how far is India justified in choosing the policy of Non-Alignment? [2] Answer:
    The following points can show that India is justified in choosing the policy of Non-Alignment :

    • Jawaharlal Nehru always wanted to keep India away from the military alliances led by US and Soviet Union against each other.
    • Through the strategy of Non-Alignment, India wanted to preserve the hardly earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development.

    Question 10.
    Give any two examples to show that globalisation has affected our food habits. [1 × 2 = 2] Answer:
    (i) In the past, Indians preferred to consume different types of juice especially in summer. As a result, small local players, like juice shops, dominated the non-alcoholic beverage segment. With the globalisation of the society, the Indian consumers are exposed to a number of beverages, such as mocktails.

    (ii) Globalisation has resulted in increase in availability and diversity of food. This kind of phenomenon is more visible in urban areas. American restaurant chains have been opening their doors from last two decades. Wherever you go, you can see McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Burger King.

    Question 11.
    State the two main expectations on the basis of which the United Nations was formed in 1945. Mention any two organs and agencies each of the UN. [4] Answer:
    In 1945, UNO was formed with two main expectations :

    • To prevent international conflicts and to facilitate the cooperation among the states.
    • Its aim was intended to bring countries together, to improve the prospects of social and economic development all over the world.

    Two organs of UNO :
    (i) Security Council Five permanent members (with veto powers) and ten non-permanent members, elected by general assembly for the period of two years. The five permanent members are developed industrialized nations. Five permanent members are 1. USA, 2. UK, 3. Russia, 4. China and 5. France.

    (ii) General Assembly: Representatives of all 192 member state, each with one vote. Major decisions require a 2/3 (two-third) majority of assembly.

    Two agencies of UNO :

    • WHO: World Health Organisation which takes care of health related issues like epidemic etc., all over the world.
    • IMF: International Monetary Fund, looks after the financial institutions and regulations at the international level.

    Question 12.
    Compare the aims and achievements of the First and the Second Five Year Plans to conclude which of the two was a turning point in India’s development. [3 + 1 = 4] Answer:
    (i) First Five Year Plan: The first five year plan largely focused on Agrarian sector :

    • Sought to get the country’s economic condition out of the cycle of poverty.
    • Improvement in ‘cultural and religious sector.
    • Plans to identify the pattern of land distribution in the country and country’s development was its goal.

    Achievements of 1st Five Year Plan :

    • Land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country.
    • Women got equality and right to an adequate means of livelihood.
    • There was very little improvement in the field of agriculture. Seeds and fertilisers were not properly provided to farmers.

    (ii) Second Five Year Plan: The main objectives of 2nd five year plan :

    • Stressed on heavy industries.
    • Wanted to bring abctut quick structural transformation by making changes.
    • Socialistic pattern of society was its goal, imposed substantial tarrifs on imports in order to protect the domestic industries.

    Achievement of 2nd Five Year Plan :

    • Savings and investments have started growing in this plan.
    • Most of the industries of bulk investment were growing like, electricity, railways, steel plants, machineries and communication.
    • Industrialisation marked a turning point in India’s development.

    Question 13.
    ‘Coalition Governments proved to be a boon for . democracy in India.’ Support this statement with any two suitable arguments. [4] Answer:
    The defeat of the Congress party marked the end of Congress dominance over Indian Party system, thus, began an era of multi-party system in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances.

    The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalits ‘ and backward castes in turn representing powerful regional assertion as well.
    There have been various coalition governments in the country, from 1977 till date. Both UPA and NDA governments have enjoyed long phases of coalition governments after the defeat of congress in 1977 elections.
    Coalition governments proved to be a boon because:

    • Ideological differences and controversies were weakened and the country enjoyed better decisions which were pragmatic.
    • They provided more alternatives for the people to choose from in the elections.
    • These governments established the importance of small and regional parties, they removed the dominance of two parties, regional aspirations and demands came into the limelight.
    • These governments led to national unity as most of the parties got a chance to be the partner in the policy formation.
    • Marfy disputed issues were put off due to minimum common programme.

    Question 14.
    List any four demands of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. [1 × 4 = 4] Answer:
    Government took an amibitious development project in Narmada Valley which was consisting of 30 big dams on Narmada river and its tributaries. However, a lot of villages were affected. Hence, a group of affected people started, “Narmada Bachao Andolan” with the following demands :

    • The Narmada Bachao Andolan demanded proper rehabilitation of all those who were affected from the construction of those projects.
    • For construction of dams, those 245 villages were submerged with half a lakh population. The andolan demanded that the cost benefit analysis of dam construction vs villagers’ shifting and rehabilitation cost should be analysed.
    • Larger social cost of development projects must be calculated and analysed. The social cost must include forced re-settlement of the project affected people.
    • The activists opposed the project through public rallies.

    Question 15.
    Explain any four factors that make the European Union an influential organisation. [4] Answer:
    Four factors that make the European Union an influential organisation are :

    • The European Union have tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
    • European union has economic, political, diplomatic‘and military influence.
    • European Union is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than US dollar $ 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than that of United States. Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of US dollar.
    • Its economic power imposes its influence over its closest neighbours as well as Asia and Africa.
    • It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organisation such as WTO (World Trade Organisation).

    Question 16.
    Explain the Nuclear Policy of India. [4] Answer:
    Nuclear programme initiated in late 1940’s and early 1950’s, under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. The main features of the Nuclear Policy of India are :

    • India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purpose.
    • India is against nuclear weapons. It pleaded with’ the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament.
    • When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as a peaceful explosion.
    • India did not join the N.P.T., it considered the Non-Proliferation treaty as discriminatory and refused to sign it.

    Question 17.
    Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :
    The Emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The Courts too, have taken an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This is a response to the inability of the judiciary to protect civil liberties effectively during the Emergency.
    (i) Which Fundamental Right of the citizens was affected the most during the Emergency period in 1975 ?
    (ii) Why did the judiciary start taking an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals?
    (iii) Should there be no restriction on the ‘Right to Civil Liberties’ ? Support your answer with one suitable argument. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5] Answer:
    (i) During the emergency period in 1975, all fundamental rights of all citizens -but Right to Freedom was affected the most.

    (ii) The emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The courts too have taken an active role after the emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals.

    (iii) There should be justified restrictions on the rights of civil liberties because it was felt that the democracy shall cease to work in India if civil liberate were left unrestricted. The press and TV should maintain their freedom to make public aware what government is doing in the name of democracy. The court should be free to give free and fair judgement which should be abide by all whether ruling party or opposition parties. However absolute freedom may lead to anarchy and no freedom will be enjoyed. Thus there should be sensible restrictions on freedom.

    Question 18.
    Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :
    The smaller States in the alliances used the link to the superpowers for their own purposes. They got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, mostly regional neighbours with whom they had rivalries. The alliance systems led by the two superpowers, therefore, threatened to divide the entire world into two camps.
    (i) Name the two superpowers that are referred to in this passage.
    (ii) How did the ‘alliance systems’ assure to protect the smaller States from their regional neighbours ?
    (iii) Explain any two reaons for the big powers to have smaller countries as their allies. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5] Answer:
    (i) The two superpowers are : US and USSR.
    (ii) In alliance system, superpower promises smaller states to provide them protection, whenever they require and support them with financial, technological and economic aid against their local rivals.
    (iii) Superpowers try to allies with smaller countries for following reasons :

    • To get vital resources like oil and minerals,
      Superpowers can have smaller countries as territories where they can make their own military base and can launch their weapons and troops. Big power requires some secret locations from where it can keep an eye on the working of other countries.
    • Superpowers require location from where they can spy on other countries.
    • Economic support in many small allies will help them to pay military expenses.

    Question 19.
    Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow :
    CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2018 Delhi 1
    (i) Identify the country related to this cartoon.
    (ii) Evaluate the system of governance being practised in this country.
    (iii) How is the system of governance in India
    different from that of the country related to the cartoon ? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5] Answer:
    (i) Country shown in cartoon is—Pakistan.
    (ii) Since power lies in the hands of military in Pakistan the essence of a true democracy is missing in Pakistan.
    (iii) In India, other political parties or public has the freedom of expression. They play a role in electing the government. The Media has freedom to write in favour or against the government.
    In Pakistan, any opposition party or citizen cannot speak against the policies of the Pakistan government. If they do so, they are supjsressed or put in jail.

    Question 20.
    Study the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow :
    The linguistic states underlined the acceptance of the principle of diversity. When we say that India adopted democracy, it does not simply mean that India adopted the format of elections. The choice was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be oppositional. Democracy, in other words, was associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.
    (i) Identify any two forms of diversity in the cultural life of people in India.
    (ii) Give any two examples to show that democracy in India is associated with plurality of ideas and acceptance of differences.
    (iii) Assess the role of elections on strengthening democracy. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5] Answer:
    (i) India is divided into many states and most of them have diversity in their cultural life.

    • There is no common language spoken throughout the country. There ate linguistic differences in states.
    • There are cultural differences which cover the religious practices, performing pooja in temples or prayers in churches.

    (ii) Democracy in India is associated with plurality of ideas and acceptance of differences. The following points support the said statement:

    • When we say, India embraced a democratic constitution, it does not merely mean that India adopted that format of election. The choice was larger than that. It was a choice in favour of recognising and accepting the existence of differences which could at times be opposite to each other. Democracy in other words was associated with plurality of ideas and ways of life.
    • India is a country of different religions and ideologies and despite differences people have freedom to express their views and equal representation in decision making bodies. They are free to accept any religion.

    (iii) In democracy, people elect their candidates and these candidates form government. Government is indirectly run by people and any citizen can take part in election and every citizen above the age of 18 is entitled to give his/her vote to elect their representative. Thus, we can say that election play a major role in democracy.

    Question 21.
    In the given political outline map of India, five states have been shown as (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E). Identify them on the basis of information given below and write their correct names in your answer-book with the respective serial number of the information used and the alphabet concerned as per the following format:

    Sr. no. of the Information used Alphabet concerned Name of the State

    (ii) A Princely State whose ruler resisted its merger with India.
    (iii) The State where the Congress Party failed to win majority in the First General Elections of
    (iv) The 29th State of India.
    (v) The State which was created in 1966. [5 × 1 = 5] CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2018 Delhi 2

    Sr. no. of the Information used Alphabet concerned Name of the State
    (i) E West Bengal
    (ii) D Jammu & Kashmir
    (iii) A Kerala
    (iv) B Telangana
    (v) C ‘ Haryana

    Question 22.
    Describe the organisational structure and , working the U.N. Security Council. [3 + 3 = 6] OR
    Describe any three new sources of threat of , security. [2 × 3 = 6] Answer:
    (i) Security Council is the main organ of United Nations Organisation (U.N.O.), that is mainly t responsible for maintaining international peace and security among nations. The structure of the Security” ” Council is composed of 15 members, of which 5 members are permanent and 10 members are elected by the General Assembly every two yeibs.
    (ii) Permanent members are UK,” USA, Russia, France and China. If any permanent member casts “VETO” to show disagreement, than no decision can be taken.
    (iii) Ten non-permanent members are elected by General Assembly every 2 years but they are not ” eligible for immediate re-election.

    Working of the Security Council:

    • To maintain international peace and security” among nations.
    • To establish friendly relations among various nations.
    • In the event of threat to peace of occurrence of war between two or more countries, the security council has the power to take appropriate measures to restore peace and security”.

    Three new sources of threat of security are :
    (i) Terrorism: Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. Terrorist groups seek to change a political contest or conditions that they do not like, by threat or by force. 9/11 attack on World Trade Centre and Twin Towers in New York is the example of terrorism.

    (ii) Global Poverty: It is another source of threat to security. Presently, world population is 650 crores and is expected to reach 700-800 crores in next 25 years. Currently, half of the world’s population growth occurs in India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Indonesia and other African countries. Among the poor countries the population is expected to get triple in next 50 years, whereas many countries will see population shrinkage in that “period. High per capita income and low population growth make some countries rich whereas, low per capita income and high population growth p make some countries poor. The gap between rich countries and poor countries is increasing year by year and hence, poor countries are feeling insecure with respect to rich countries.

    (iii) Health Epidemics: Such as HIV-AIDS, bird flu and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are rapidly spreading across the countries through migration, tourism and military operations. These diseases leave their effect in other countries also.

    Question 23.
    Highlight any three issues of consensus to show that in the midst of severe competitions and conflicts, a consensus has appeared among most political parties. [2 × 3 = 6] OR
    Suggest any three measures which, in your opinion, are very effective to strengthen the national integrity and unity of India.
    Though there exists ideological difference in various political parties, but for the development of the country, on many crucial issues, a broad agreement has emerged among most of the parties. In the mindst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus has emerged among most of the parties. These consensus consists of four elements :
    (i) First, agreement on new economic policies while many groups are opposed to new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.

    (ii) Second, acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes—political parties have recognised that social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the ‘Backward Classes’ in education, employment and even in the adequate share of power in political parties itself.

    (iii) Third, acceptance of the role of State level parties in governance of the country. The distinction between state level and national level parties is becoming less important. Since, state level parties are showing power at the national level, and have played a central role in the country’s politics in recent years.

    (iv) Fourth, emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement—Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. For example, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the HINDUTVA ideology of the BJP, yet they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
    Three measures to strengthen national integrites and units of India:
    (i) Economic Unity: Economic inequality exist in our country this is no less than a fact. For the sake of national integration, we have to see that no part of the country is particularly backward from the economic viewpoint. For that the backward classes and the minority people should be accorded special assistance for their general uplift. ,

    (ii) Social Unity: India is having various types of social inequalities on the basis of religion, caste,’ community, class, regions, wealth and poverty. People of the various sections of society do not have a feeding of sympathy and brotherhood for each other.

    (iii) Emotional Unity: For national integration, the people of the level must come together into one emotional thread. There can be no national integration unless all the people consider themselves as one. Through emotional integration we get the power to implicit sections of the people for national integration.

    Question 24.
    Describe any three major political developments that took place in India after the lifting of Emergency in 1977. [2 × 3 = 6] OR
    Describe any three major events that led to the formal split in the Congress Party in 1969. [1 1/2 × 4 = 6] Answer:
    Three major developments that took place after the emergency are :
    (i) Immediately after the emergency, Lok Sabha elections were anounced. The 1977 elections turned into a referendum on the experience of the emergency. The opposition fought the election on the slogan of SAVE DEMOCRACY and opposition won the elections and coalition government was formed for the first time.

    (ii) The lesson was clear and in elections, Congress was defeated badly in Lok Sabha and States. It was public reaction to show that any party which will force their undemocratic functions shall be considered as anti-democratic and cannot run the government. In this process of experience of 1975-77, it has ended up by strengthening the foundation of democracy in India by uniting all opposition parties. Hence, one-party dominance (Congress) ended.

    (iii) The trend of coalition government started first time in India, when all the opposition parties gathered together against Congress. Congress itself divided in parts and Syndicate members won the election. Indira Gandhi’s reputation was so low that she herself lost the election by an unknown person.
    Three major events that led to the formal split in Congress party in 1969. These can be summarised in:
    (i) The Congress committee was led by Mr. K. Kamraj and Mr. Morarji Desai. They expelled the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi from the party. She claimed that her group was the real Congress group because after getting support from many of her colleagues (Ministers and MPs) she proved her majority. During that period, President elections were called when Congress nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy and Indira Gandhi’s candidate was V. V. Giri, Indira asked Congress MPs and MLAs to use their conscience and vote, and V. V. Giri was elected as President of India, which was a victory of Indira Gandhi over their rivals.

    (ii) By November 1969, Congress group led by -Syndicate emerged and was referred to as Congress (O) and the group of Congress led by Indira Gandhi was referred as Congress (R). These two parties were also described as old congress and new Congress.

    (iii) Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divid between Socialistic and Conservatives between the pro-poor and pro-rich. Indira Gandhi now gave the slogan GARIBI HATAO, which gained an instant popularity. ‘

    Question 25.
    Examine the hegemony of the United States as a hard power. [6] OR
    Analyse the working of democracy in Pakistan.
    Hegemony is an international system to dominate world by only one superpower. United states have the hard power hegemony through its military capability.

    • U.S. today has military capabilities that can reach any point on the planet accurately and in real time.
    • U.S. today spends more on its military capabilities than the other 12 powers combined. Furthermore, a large chunk of the Pentagon’s budget goes into military research and development, in other words technology.
    • Thus, the military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending but on a qualitative gap, a technological chasm tht no power can, at present, conceivably span.
    • The U.S. invasion of Iraq shows that the American capacity to conquer is formidable. Similarly, the U.S. capabilities to deter and to punish is self-evident. More than 40 countries joined in the US led “coalition of the willing” after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. Thus, no country can deny the U.S. superiority in the world politics.

    Working of democracy in Pakistan :
    (i) After Pakistan framed its first constitution, General Ayub Khan took over the administration of the country and soon got himself elected. He had to quit the office when there were agitations and dissatisfaction in his rule. This gave a way to the military to takeover the government of the country.

    (ii) After 1971, an elected government was formed under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, which was removed by General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977.

    (iii) Again in 1982, in Pakistan, by a pro-democracy protest, democratic government was established in 1988, under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Later on, history repeated and General Pervez Musharraf again took the command in 1999 and got elected in 2005.

    (iv) It is, therefore, said that military rule and ‘ democracy are two sides of the coin in Pakistan.
    Though Pakistan’s politics centered around the competition between People’s party and Muslim League, Several factors have contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy.

    Question 26.
    Explain any six reasons responsible or the disintegration of the USSR. [6 × 1 = 6] OR
    Explain any three reasons that led the Cold War to an arms race as well as arms control.
    Six reasons responsible for the disintegration of USSR:

    • The people in East European countries which were the part of the Soviet Bloc, started to protest against their own government i.e., United USSR.
    • Soviet control, unlike in the past when the Soviet Union was under Gorbachev, did not intervene when the disturbances started and spread and the communist regime collapsed one after another.
    • Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reforms and democratisation within the country. The reforms were opposed by leaders within the communist party.
    • Ordinary people became more knowlegeable about the technological and economic advancement of the west.
    • Corruption was rampant.
    • M. Gorbachev promised to reform economy, catch up with the west and loosen the administrative system. However, he could not fulfill any promises which led to dissatisfaction among the citizens.

    The cold war led to an arms race as well as arms control. The following were the reasons for both these development:

    • Cuban Missile crisis engaged both the superpowers in the development of nuclear weapons to intention the world.
    • US dropped nuclear bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, with the intention to stop Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia.
    • Both the powers were not ready to initiate a war as they knew that destruction and outcomes of this war would not justify any gain for them.
    • Both superpowers were to be rational and responsible because it was important to avoid risk of another world war to ensure human survival.
    • Hence, both the superpowers decided to limit the certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons by signing various significant agreements within a decade i.e., Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty, etc. (any three)

    Question 27.
    Suggest any four steps that the Government of India should immediately take to save the environment. [1 1/2 × 4 = 6] OR
    Suggest any four steps that the Government of India should take to popularise the Indian culture at the global level.
    Answer: Steps that the government of India should immediately take to save the environment:
    (i) The principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” means that all the states shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. The special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application and interpretation of rules of international environmental law. This law has been accepted in the declaration of the earth summit in 1992.

    (ii) We should implement the idea with the help of conventions and declarations. The Rio-Summit held in June 1992, produced conventional dealings with climate change, bio-diversity, forestry and recommended a list of developed practices called Agenda-21.

    (iii) The 1992 United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the climate system “on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”

    (iv) The Kyoto protocol, an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their green house gas emissions was signed and ratified by India. Certain gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydroflurocarbons, etc., are considered adeast partly responsible for global warming. The rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for fife on earth. Government is expected to follow the targets set in above summit.
    After the globalisation, every area of life’is affected by the influence of West.
    However, Indian Government can restore the Indian culture at global level by the following measures :
    (i) Although India has one of the best monuments— Taj Mahal, which is famous all over the world and millions of people visit it. But, the world is not properly aware of India’s rich culture and heritage of various states.

    (ii) From time, to time Indian Government can give advertisements regarding Indian culture and monuments in World Newpapers, hold conventions and exhibitions about rich heritage and culture of Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Kerala, North-East, Odisha, Stupas of Buddha period, etc.

    (iii) Government has to improve ways to access to the interiors of India where rich culture is found. For a foreign tourist, they should provide educated guides to explain the culture and history at a reasonable cost.

    (iv) Branches of Indian hotels and restaurants should be opened in different countries to promote Indian cuisine etc. Cultural exchange programs should be encouraged at international level.

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