Study MaterialsCBSE NotesIn the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions History Chapter 4

In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions History Chapter 4

In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 4

NCERT Extra Questions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 4 In the Earliest Cities

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    In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

    Question 1.
    Write important historical events against the following dates:
    (a) About 7000 years ago
    (b) About 4700 years ago
    (c) About 3900 years ago
    (d) About 2500 years ago.
    Answer:

    Dates Events
    (а) About 7000 years ago Cotton cultivation at Mehrgarh
    (b) About 4700 years ago Beginning of cities life in Indian sub-continent
    (c) About 3900 years ago Beginning of the end of early Indian cities
    (d) About 2500 years ago The emergence of other phases of cities in Indian sub – continent.

    Question 2.
    Do you have covered drains in your locality? What are the advantages of
    having covered drains?
    Answer: Yes, we have covered drains in our locality.
    Followings are the advantages of having covered drains:

    • Under this system each drain generally had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.
    • Very often drains in houses are connected to those on the streets and smaller drains led into bigger ones. It helps people in keeping clean their houses and buildings in a modern systematic manner.
    • As the streets and lanes drained are covered, inspection holes are provided at intervals to clean them from time to time. Covered drains protect people from foul smell and help them to keep good health.
    • Covered drains are proof of more advanced civilised life.

    Question 3.
    Write the names of the cities related with the earliest civilisation of the Indian subcontinent.
    Answer:

    1. Mohenjodaro
    2. Harappa
    3. Rakhigarhi
    4. Dholavira
    5. Kalibangan
    6. Lothal
    7. Ropar and

    Question 4.
    Which was the earliest city discovered in Indian-subcontinent? Where is it situated nowadays?
    Answer:
    Mohenjodaro in Sindh. It is in Pakistan nowadays.

    Question 5.
    When were the earliest cities of the Harappan civilisation built?
    Answer:
    The earliest cities of Harappan civilisation were built about 4700 years ago.

    Question 6.
    Write one major, impressive and unique feature of the earliest cities of India.
    Answer:
    Covered Drains was one major, impressive and unique feature of the earliest cities of India.

    Question 7.
    By what name is the Indus Valley Civilisation now called?
    Answer:
    The Harappan Culture.

    Question 8.
    Write the name of another important city <other than Mohenjodaro) related with the Indus Valley Civilisation.
    Answer:
    Harappa.

    Question 9.
    Into how many parts were the cities of the Mohenjodaro and Harappa divided?
    Answer:
    Both cities were divided into two main parts:

    1. Upper part and
    2. Lower part.

    Question 10.
    What was the width of the main road of Mohenjodaro?
    Answer:
    10 metres.

    Question 11.
    Write two main characteristics of houses in the Harappan city.
    Answer:

    1. Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high with a single room built around a courtyard.
    2. Most houses had a separate bathing area and some had wells to supply water.

    Question 12.
    Name the people with whom the Harappans had trade-relations.
    Answer:
    Sumerians (modern Iraq’s people).

    Question 13.
    Which was considered the main foreign trade centre in India during the time of Indus Valley Civilization?
    Answer:
    Lothal (Gujarat).

    Question 14.
    Write the names of two means of transport generally used by the HarappAnswer:
    Answer:

    1. Cart and
    2. Boat.

    Question 15.
    On an outline map of India (and its neighbours) show the area?extent of the Harappan culture and important following sites (cities) with their names.

    1. Harappa
    2. Mohenjodaro
    3. Lothal
    4. Kalibangan
    5. Ropar.

    Answer:
    Consult map at page 33 of your textbook.

    In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions Short Answer Type

    Question 1.
    Describe the drain-system of the Harappans.
    Answer:

    • In cities related with the Harappan civilisation, each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.
    • Very often, drains in houses were connected to those in streets and smaller drains led to bigger ones.
    • As the drains were covered, inspection holes were provided at intervals to clean them. All three (i.e., drains, houses and streets) were probably planned and built at the same time.

    Question 2.
    Where do we find early cities of the Indian subcontinent? What unique objects have been found by Archaeologists in these cities?
    Answer:
    1. The early cities of the Indian subcontinent are found in present-day Pakistan, and in India. In India these are found in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Western parts of U.P. and Punjab.

    2. Archaeologists have found a set of unique objects in almost all these cities:

    • Red pottery painted with designs in black,
    • Stone Weights,
    • Seals with writing,
    • Special beads,
    • Copper tools, and
    • Long stone blades.

    Question 3.
    Write a short note on ‘The Cattle Rearing of the HarappAnswer:’
    Answer:
    The Cattle Rearing

    • The Harappans reared cattle, sheep, goat, and buffalo.
    • Water and pasture was available around settlements,
    • In the dry summer months, large herds of animals were probably taken to greater
      distances in search of grass and water.

    Question 4.
    Give one word for each of the following terms or sentences:

    1. Stage when the culture of a country or region is developed and advanced.
    2. Clay tablets and idols.
    3. A place where surplus grains were stored.
    4. A place where ships were loaded, unloaded and repaired.

    Answer:

    1. Civilisation,
    2. Terracotta,
    3. Grainaries,
    4. Dockyard.

    In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions Long Answer Type

    Question 1.
    What was Special about the Harappan-Civilisation cities?
    Answer:

    • Many of the Harappan cities were divided into two or more parts.
    • Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel.
    • And the part to the east was larger but lower. This is called the lower town.
    • Very often walls of baked brick were built around each part. The bricks were so well made that they lasted for thousands of years. The interlocking of bricks made the
      walls strong.
    • In some cities of this civilisation, special buildings were constructed on the citadel. For example, we can see a special tank in Mohenjodaro. It is popularly known as the Great Bath.
    • Other cities, such as Kalibangan and Lothal, had fire altars, where sacrifices might have been performed. And some cities like Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal had elaborated store houses (or Granaries).

    Question 2.
    Describe the main features of the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro.
    Answer:
    The Great Bath

    • In Mohenjodaro, a very special tank, which archaeologists called the Great Bath, was built in its Citadel Area.
    • This special tank was made of bricks, coated with plaster and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar.
    • There were steps leading down to it from two sides, while there were rooms on all sides.
    • Water was probably brought in from a well, and drained out after use.
    • Perhaps important people took a dip in this tank on special occasions.

    Question 3.
    Write in brief the story of Harappa’s finding.
    Answer:
    The story of Harappa

    • About 152 years ago (1855 A.D.), when railway lines were being laid down for the first time in west Punjab. Engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa in present-day Pakistan. To them, it appeared like a mount which was a rich source of ready-made, high quality bricks.
    • The labourers (working on railway-line) carried off thousands of bricks from the walls of the old building of the city (later on named as Harappa) to construct railway lines. Many buildings were completely destroyed.
    • Then, nearly eighty five years ago (1920 A.D.), archaeologists found the site, and realized that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent. As this was the first city to be discovered.

    Question 4.
    Discuss in brief the life in Harappa City.
    Answer: Life in Harappa City

    • Probably Harappa was a busy place. There were people who planned the construction of special buildings in the city. These were probably the rulers.
    • Most probably the rulers of the Harappan city sent people to distant lands to get metal, precious stones and other things that they desired or required.
    • The rulers may have kept the most valuable objects, such as ornaments of gold and silver or beautiful beads for themselves.
    • And there were scribes, people who knew how to write, who helped prepare the seals and perhaps wrote (or engraved) on other materials.

    Question 5.
    Write a short note on the Script of the Harappan people.
    Answer:

    • Historians believe that the people of the Indus-Valley civilisation were literate. Many seals have been discovered. We can note lines (or symbols) of signs on the top of several seals of the Harappan people. These are parts of what historians call a script. This is the earliest form of writing known in the subcontinent.
    • Scholars have made many efforts to read these signs (or decipher the Harappan script), but we still do not know exactly what they mean.

    Question 6.
    Describe in short different objects made and found in different Harappan cities or sites.
    Answer:

    • Metals used by the people of Harappan cities are made of stone, metal including copper, tin, bronze, gold, silver and shell.
    • Vessels and Ornaments. Copper and bronze were used to make vessels and ornaments.
    • Beads. Perhaps the most striking finds are those of beads. Many of these were made out of carnelian, a beautiful red stone. The stone was cut, shaped, polished and finally a hole was bored through the centre so that a string could be passed through it.
    • Weights. Stones were used to make weights. Very carefully and precisely some chart weights were shaped by the people of the Harappan culture. These were probably used to weigh precious stones or metals. Chart was also used to make distinctive long blades.
    • Seals. The Harappans also made seals out of stone. These are generally rectangular and usually have an animal (e.g. a Bull or a Rhinoceros) carved on them.
    • Faience. Unlike stone or shell, that are found naturally, faience is artificially produced. A gum was used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object. The object then glazed remitting in a shiny, glassy surface. The glaze colour was generally sea green or blue. Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings and tiny vessels.
    • Pottery. The Harappans also made pottery with beautiful black designs.

    Question 7.
    “There are many evidences that cloth was worn by the Harappans.” Explain in brief.
    Answer:

    • The Harappans prepared and used cloth. Cotton was probably grown at Mehrgarh from about 7,000 years ago.
    • Actual pieces of cloth were found attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro.
    • Archaeologists have also found Spindle whorls, made of terracotta and faience. These were used to spin thread.
    • We also have indirect evidence to show how cloth was decorated. For instance, a stone statue of an important man found at Mohenjodaro shows him wearing an embroidered garment.

    Question 8.
    Discuss the work of specialists in the Harappans’ society.
    Answer:
    1. Meaning
    A specialist is a person who is trained to do only one type of work, for instance, cutting stone or polishing beads or carving seats.

    2. Specialists as Producers

    • Many of the things that were produced were probably the work of specialists.
    • We find a figure of a man bearing beard.
    • If we look at the statue or figure we see how well the face is carved and how carefully the beard is shown.
    • According to scholars this must have been the work of an expert crafts
      person.

    Question 9.
    What are raw materials? How did the Harappans make their provision?
    Answer:
    1. Meaning

    • Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders.
    • These are generally processed to produce finishing goods.
    • For instance cotton, produced by farmers, is a raw material that is processed to make cloth.

    2. Provision or Search of Raw Materials

    • While some of the raw materials that the Harappans used were available locally many items such as copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones had to be brought from distant places.
    • The Harappans probably got copper from Rajasthan and even from Oman.
    • Tin, which was mixed with copper to produce bronze, may have been brought from Afghanistan and Iran.
    • Gold could have come all the way from Karnataka and
    • Precious stones from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.

    Question 10.
    Discuss ‘agriculture’ as an important occupation of the Harappans.
    Or
    How was food provided for people in the Harappan cities?
    Answer:
    Agriculture of the Harappans or Food for People in the Cities

    • While many people lived in the cities, others grew crops and reared animals.
    • We know from remains of plants that the Harappans grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard.
    • A new tool, the plough, was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. While real ploughs, which were probably made of wood, have not survived, toy models have been found.
    • As this region does not receive heavy rainfall, some form of irrigation may have been used. This means that water was stored and supplied to the fields when the plants were growing.
    • Different types of cattle were also used for food supply. They also collected fruits like ber (Vt), caught fish and hunted wild animals like the antelope.

    Question 11.
    What were the causes of the end of the Harappan culture?
    Or
    Discuss the mystery of the end of the Harappan civilization.
    Answer:
    The Mystery of the end of the Harappans or the Probable causes of downfall of the Harappan Civilisation. Nearly 3900 years ago we find the beginning of a major change in Harappan cities or sites

    • People stopped living in many of the cities
    • Writing, seals and weights were no longer used
    • Raw Materials brought from long distances became rare
    • In Mohenjodaro, we find that garbage piled upon the streets, the drainage system broke down, and new, less impressive houses that were built encroached on to the streets.

    Causes. The following causes were possibly responsible for the end of the Harappan
    culture –

    • Some scholars suggest that the rivers dried up.
    • Others suggest that there was deforestation. This could have happened because fuel was required for baking bricks and for melting copper ores. Besides, grazing by large herds of cattle, sheep and goat may have destroyed the green cover.
    • In some areas there were floods.
    • Perhaps the rulers lost control but none of these reasons can explain the end of all the cities.
    • In short we can say that we are not same about the end of the Harappan culture. However, flooding or a river drying up would have had an effect in only some areas.

    In the Earliest Cities Class 6 Extra Questions Multiple Choice Questions

    Choose the correct answer:

    Question 1.
    When did Harappan cities develop?
    (a) About 4,700 years ago
    (b) About 3,700 years ago
    (c) About 2,700 years ago
    (d) About 1,700 years ago
    Answer:
    About 4,700 years ago

    Question 2.
    How many storeys of houses were generally found in Harappan cities?
    (a) One or two storeys
    (b) Four to five storeys
    (c) Multi storeys
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    One or two storeys

    Question 3.
    Where did the crafts persons make the things in the earliest cities?
    (a) In their own homes
    (b) In special workshops
    (c) Both (a) and (b)
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    Both (a) and (b)

    Question 4.
    Which metal were the most of things found by the archaeologists made of?
    (a) Stone
    (b) Copper and gold
    (c) Silver
    (d) All of these
    Answer:
    All of these

    Question 5.
    What was the thing used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object?
    (a) Gum
    (b) Ink
    (c) Nails
    (d) Rubber
    Answer:
    Gum

    Question 6.
    Which colours were used for glazed material resulting in a shiny object?
    (a) Black and white
    (b) Red and yellow
    (c) Blue or sea green
    (d) Pink or brown
    Answer:
    Blue or sea green

    Question 7.
    From where did the Harappans get copper?
    (a) Mumbai
    (b) Delhi
    (c) Kerala
    (d) Rajasthan
    Answer:
    Rajasthan

    Question 8.
    Who supplied food to craft persons, scribes and rulers in the cities?
    (a) Local citizens
    (b) Farmers and herders
    (c) Post men
    (d) All of these
    Answer:
    Farmers and herders

    Question 9.
    How did the Harappans irrigate their fields and grow plants? Through
    (a) rainfall
    (b) stored water
    (c) streams
    (d) rivers
    Answer:
    stored water

    Question 10.
    From where did the boats and ships come into the sea and rivers?
    (a) Ports
    (b) Dockyards
    (c) None of these
    (d) Both (a) and (b)
    Answer:
    Dockyards

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