Study MaterialsCBSE NotesRulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 5

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 5

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 5

NCERT Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings

Prelude

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    Question 1.
    Study the figure given below and give your observations.
    Answer:

    • Figure 5.2 shows the first balcony of Qutb Minar.
    • Qutbuddin Aybak got this constructed around 1199 A.D.
    • It has a pattern created under the balcony by the small arches and geometrical designs.
    • It has two bands of inscriptions under the balcony.
    • These are in Arabic.
    • The surface of the minar is curved and angular.
    • Placing an inscription on such a surface required great precision.
    • Only the most skilled crafts persons could perform this task.
    • Very few buildings were made of stone or brick 800 years ago.
    • A building like the Qutb Minar had a great impact on observers in the thirteenth century.

    Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 5 - 1

    Question 2
    What two types of structures were built by the kings and their officers between 8th and 18th century?
    Ans
    Two kinds/types of structures.

    • First kinds: Forts, palaces and tombs.
    • Second kinds: Structures meant for public activities such as temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravan serais and bazaars.

    Question 3.
    Who got different type of structures build?
    Answer:
    Kings built different structures for the use and comfort of their subjects. This got them praise. Merchants got temples, mosques and well constructed.
    Only domestic structures like havelis, large mansions have survived from the 18th century.

    Question 4.
    Who constructed Agra Fort? How many labourers were used to construct it?
    Answer:
    Akbar constructed Agra Fort. It required

    • 2,000 stone cutters.
    • 2,000 cement and lime-makers.
    • 8,000 labourers.

    Engineering Skills And Construction

    Question 1.
    Give an account of new technological developments used during 7th to 13th centimes.
    Answer:

    • Monuments provide an insight into the technologies used for construction.
    • Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings.
    • Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns.
    • It was a style of architecture called ‘trabeate’ or ‘corbelled’.
    • Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large stepped-wells (baolis).

    Question 2.
    How were the roofs constructed in earlier times?
    Answer:
    Roofs were constructed by placing wooden beams or a stone slab across four walls. This task was becoming difficult if the size of structure was elaborate.

    Question 3.
    What is superstructure? What does it need?
    Answer:
    Superstructure is a part of building above the ground floor.
    It needs sophisticated skills.

    Question 4.
    Which two technological and stylistic developments took place from the 12th century?
    Answer:
    From the 12th century two artistic developments took place.

    • Arcuate style in which the weight of the super structure above the windows and doors was carried by arches.
    • Limestone cement came into use. This high quality cement mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of big structures easier and faster.

    Temple construction in the Early Eleventh Century

    Question 1.
    Name three ruling dynasties of Southern India and mention names of temples constructed by them.
    Answer:
    The three ruling dynasties of Southern India and names of the famous temples constructed by them are given below:
    Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 5 - 2

    Question 2.
    Give an account of temple construction in the early eleventh century.
    Answer:
    Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century
    Mahadeva Temple:

    • The Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed in 999 by the King Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty.
    • An ornamented gateway led to an entrance, and the main hall. It is called Mahamandapa.
    • Here dances were performed.
    • The image of the chief deity was kept in the main shrine, called garbhagriha.
    • This was the place for ritual worship where only the king, his immediate family and priests gathered.
    • The Khajuraho complex contained royal temples, here commoners were not allowed entry.
    • The temples were decorated with elaborately carved sculptures.

    Rajarajeshvara Temple:

    • The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara amongst temples of its time.
    • Construction of this temple was difficult because there were no cranes in those days.
    • The 90 tonne stone for the top of the shikhara was too heavy to lift manually.
    • The architects built an inclined path to the top of the temple.
    • They placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all the way to the top.
    • The path started more than four kilometres away so that it would not be too steep.
    • This was demolished after the construction.
    • But the residents of the area remembered the experience of the construction of the temple for a long time.
    • Even today a village near the temple is called Charupallam, the “Village of the Incline”.

    Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks

    Question 1.
    Why were temples and mosques beautifully constructed?
    Ans.
    Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because of the following reasons:

    • They were the places of worship.
    • They also meant to demonstrate power, wealth and devotion of the patron- mostly the kings and emperors.

    Question 2.
    Which temple was constructed by Rajarajadeva?
    Answer:
    The temples communicated the importance of a king in following manner.

    • Name of the temples and the king were almost similar
    • Examples: King: Rajarajadeva.
    • Temple: Rajarajeshvara.
    • God: Rajarajeshvaram
    • The main Gods were identical in name with the kings.
    • Lesser deities were gods and goddesses of the allies and subordinates of the ruler.
    • Temple was the miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies.

    Question 3.
    What did the royal temples signify?
    Answer:
    The largest temples were constructed by the kings. In the temple made by Rajarajadeva worship of one god Rajarajeshvaram honoured another-Rajarajadeva.

    The other lesser deities were the gods and goddesses of the allies and subordinate of the ruler. The temples were the miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. As they worshipped the deities together in the temple, it seemed as if just rule of the gods is brought on earth.

    Question 4.
    Give an account of the Sultans as the shadows of God.
    Ans.

    • Muslim Sultans and padshahs did not claim to be incarnations of God.
    • Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.
    • An inscription in the Delhi mosque explained that God choose Alauddin as a king because he had the qualities of Moses and Solomon who were the great law-givers of the past.
    • The greatest law giver and architect was God Himself.
    • He created the world out of chaos and introduced order and symmetry.

    Question 5.
    What did the rulers do to get the praise and respect of the people?
    Answer:
    To get the praise and respect of his people and the moral right to rule, the kings:

    • Started constructing places of worship to claim close connection with God.
    • They offered patronage to the priests and transformed their capitals as cultural centres.
    • Another way was making precious water available by constructing tanks and reservoirs for example a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna was constructed by Iltutmish. It was called Hauz-i-Sultani or the “King’s Reservoir”.
    • Sometimes these tanks and reservoirs were part of a temple, mosque or a gurdwara.
    • It was believed that in the kingdom of a just ruler there, will be enough and god will also not withhold the rain.

    Why were Temples Destroyed?

    Question 1.
    Why were the temples destructed by the invaders?
    Answer:

    • Kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth.
    • When they attacked one another’s kingdoms, they often targeted these buildings.
    • In the early ninth century when the Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha invaded Sri Lanka and defeated the king, Sena I (831-851) it is believed that “he removed all the valuables…. the statue of the Buddha made entirely of gold in the Jewel Palace …. and the golden images in the various monasteries’.
    • The blow to the pride of the Sinhalese ruler had to be avenged. The next Sinhalese ruler, Sena II, ordered his general to invade Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
    • His expedition made a special effort to find and restore the gold statue of the Buddha.
    • In the same way in the early eleventh century, when the Chola King Rajendra I built a Shiva temple in his capital he filled it with prized statues which he seized from defeated rulers.

    An incomplete list included.

    • A Sun-pedestal from the Chalukvas.
    • A Ganesha statue and several statues of Durga.
    • A Nandi statue from the eastern Chalukyas.
    • An image of Bhairava (a form of Shiva) and Bhairavi from the Kalingas of Orissa.
    • A Kali statue from the Palas of Bengal.

    Question 2.
    What did Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni do with Temples?
    Answer:

    • Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was a contemporary of Rajendra I.
    • During his campaigns in the subcontinent he attacked the temples of defeated kings and looted their wealth and idols.
    • Sultan Mahmud was not an important ruler at that time.
    • But by destroying temples especially the one at Somnath—he tried to win credit as a great hero of Islam.
    • In the political culture of the Middle Ages most rulers displayed their political might and military success by attacking and looting the temples of defeated rulers.

    Gardens, Tombs and Forts

    Question 1.
    Give an account of gardens during Mughal rule.
    Answer:

    • Under the Mughals, architecture became more complex.
    • Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, and especially Shah Jahan took personal interest in literature, art and architecture,
    • In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out
      formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.
    • These gardens were called Chahar bagh, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into four parts.
    • Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful Chahar baghs were set up by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.

    Question 2.
    Akbar’s reign saw several architectural innovations. Comment.
    Answer:
    There were several important architectural innovations during Akbar’s reign. . – Akbar’s architects turned to the tombs of his Central Asian ancestor, Timur.

    • The central towering dome and the tall gateway (Pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb.
    • It was placed in the centre of a huge formal Chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.
    • The building was constructed with red sandstone. It was edged with white marble.

    Question 3.
    Describe how forts were constructed during Shah Jahan’s reign.
    Answer:
    During Shah Jahan’s reign different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together:

    • A lot of construction was done in Delhi and Agra.
    • The ceremonial halls of public and private audience (diwan-i-am or diwan-i khas)
    • were placed in a huge courtyard. These were also called chihil sutun or “forty pillared
      halls”.
    • Audience halls were constructed to resemble a mosque.
    • The pedestral on which his throne was placed was described as qibla and everybody faced that direction when the court was in session.
    • He had built the Taj Mahal on the bank of river Yamuna at Agra in the memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal.
    • He adapted the river front garden in the layout.
    • The white marble mausoleum was placed on the terrace and the garden was to its South.

    Question 4.
    How was the connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasised by architecture?
    Answer:
    The king as the representative of God on earth was suggested by Shah Jahan’s audience halls with throne on pedestal and referred as ‘qibla’. These audience halls communicated that king’s justice would treat all as equal creating a world where all live in harmony.

    • It was further emphasised in the newly constructed Red Fort at Delhi. Behind the throne there were series of ‘pietra dura’ inlays that depicted Greek God Orpheus playing the lute.
    • It was believed that Orpheus’s music could calm even ferocious beasts and they coexisted peacefully.

    Question 5.
    What were the other developments in architecture during Shah Jahan’s reign?
    Answer:
    Shah Jahan’s capital was Agra. There the nobles constructed their houses on the bank of Yamuna. These were set in middle of formal gardens in style of Chahar Bagh format or the ‘river front gardens’. In river front garden style the houses were at the edge, close to the river.

    The Taj Mahal was constructed on a terrace by the edge of the river with garden at its south. This was done to control the access of the nobles to the river.

    New city of Shahjahanabad in Delhi the palace commanded the river front. Only special nobles like eldest son Dara Shukoh had the access to the river. All other nobles had to construct their homes in the’ city away from the river.

    Question 6.
    Define the term Pietra Dura.
    Answer:
    Coloured hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone structures. This style of decoration is called Pietra Dura.

    Region and Empire

    Question 1.
    Give an account of the regional influence on art.
    Answer:
    Regions and Art:
    With increase in construction activity between the eighth and eighteenth centuries there was a considerable sharing of ideas across regions.
    The traditions of one region were adopted by another.

    • In Vrindavan, near Mathura, temples were constructed in architectural styles, similar to the Mughal palaces in Fatehpur Sikri.
    • Vijayanagara’s architecture was influenced by the Sultanate of Bijapur and Golconda example their elephant stables.

    Mughal rulers were particularly skilled in adapting regional architectural styles in the construction of their own buildings.

    • In Bengal, the local rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched hut.
    • The Mughals liked this “Bangla dome” so much that they used it in their architecture.
    • The impact of other regions was also evident.
    • In Akbars capital at Fatehpur Sikri many of the buildings bear the impact of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa.

    Multiple Choice Questions

    Prelude
    Question 1.
    Large stepped-wells were called
    (a) ponds
    (b) superstructures
    (c) quiblas
    (d) baolis
    Answer:
    baolis

    Question 2.
    The baolis were constructed
    (a) to provide a place for bathing for royals
    (b) to fulfil the water demand
    (c) for rainwater harvesting
    (d) for entertainment of royals
    Answer:
    for rainwater harvesting

    Question 3.
    The surface of the Qutb Minar is
    (a) triangular
    (b) rectangular
    (c) circular
    (d) curved and angular
    Answer:
    curved and angular

    Engineering Skills and Construction

    Question 1.
    Superstructure was the term given to
    (a) the large mansions
    (b) the part of the building above the ground floor
    (c) large stepped wells
    (d) an ornamented hall
    Answer:
    the part of the building above the ground floor

    Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century

    Question 1.
    What is Shikhara?
    (a) The main shrine of the temple
    (c) The topmost pointed portion of a
    (b) An ornamented hall of the temple temple
    (d) None of the above
    Answer:
    An ornamented hall of the temple temple

    Question 2.
    The Dhangadeva was the king of
    (a) Pandayan dynasty
    (c) Khalji dynasty
    (b) Rajput dynasty
    (d) Chandela dynasty
    Answer:
    Chandela dynasty

    Building temples, mosques and tanks

    Question 1.
    The temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because
    (a) they were the place of worship
    (b) they meant to demonstrate power and wealth
    (c) they meant to demonstrate devotion of kings
    (d) all of the above
    Answer:
    all of the above

    Why were Temples Destroyed?

    Question 1.
    Which Pandayan king invaded Sri Lanka?
    (a) King Sena – I
    (b) Shrimara Shrivallabha
    (c) King Rajendra
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    Shrimara Shrivallabha

    Gardens, Tombs and Forts

    Question 1.
    Diwan-i Khas or Diwan-i am courts were also described as
    (a) chihil Sutun
    (b) qibia
    (c) chahar bagh
    (d) pishtaq
    Answer:
    chihil Sutun

    Question 2.
    The “river-front garden” was the another name of
    (a) baoli
    (b) chahar bagh
    (c) reservoir
    (d) hauz
    Answer:
    chahar bagh

    Question 3.
    Akbar’s capital was at
    (a) Delhi
    (b) Red Fort
    (c) Siri Fort
    (d) Agra
    Answer:
    Agra

    Region and Empire

    Question 1.
    Fatehpur Sikri’s architecture was influenced by the styles of which region?
    (a) Bengal
    (b) Gujarat
    (c) Vijaynagara
    (d) Bijapur
    Answer:
    Gujarat

    Objective Type Questions

    Question 1.
    Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
    1. The …………………. temple at Thanjavur had tallest Shikhara.
    2. …………………….did not claim to be the incarnation of God.
    3. King Sena I of Sri Lanka was defeated by………….. ruler Shrimara.
    4. Idea of construction of ……….. was described by Babur in his autobiography.
    5. The Pietra Dura work on the emperor’s throne depicts the Greek God……… playing the flute.
    6. Shah Jahan constructed a new city called …………… in Delhi.
    Answer:
    1. Rajarajeshvara
    2. Muslim Sultans
    3. Pandyan
    4. Chahar bagh
    5. Orpheus
    6 Shahjahanabad

    Question 2.
    State whether the given statements are true or false:
    1. Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed by the Cholas.
    2. Persian chroniclers described the Sultan as the Shadow of God.
    3. Qutb Minar was constructed in 1199 by Humayun.
    4. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni attacked the temple of Somnath many times.
    5. During Akbar’s time different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together.
    6. Taj Mahal was a Mausoleum in white marble.
    Answer:
    1. False
    2. True
    3. False
    4. True
    5. False
    6. True.

    Question 3.
    Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B:
    Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 5 - 3
    Answer:
    1. (f)
    2. (a)
    3. (c)
    4. (b)
    5. (d)
    6. (e).

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