HomeSocial ScienceThe Nationalist Movement in Indo-China LAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China LAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences

 

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China LAQ CBSE Class 10 Social Sciences

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    Q.1. Why was a new education policy introduced by the French in Vietnam ? What were the limitations or drawbacks of the new education policy introduced by the French in Vietnam ?[CBSE March 2011, 2015 (D)]
    Ans. Reason for New Education Policy :
    (i) The elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
    (ii) French colonisation was not based only on economic exploitation, but it was driven by the idea of a civilising mission. Education was seen as one way to civilise the natives.
    Limitations :
    (i) Only the Vietnamese elites comprising a small fraction of the population were enrolled in the schools.
    (ii) Only a few among those admitted ultimately were allowed to pass the School-Leaving Examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particularly in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs. Usually, as many as two-thirds of the students were failed. In 1925, in a population of 17 million, there were less than 400 who could pass the examination.
    (iii) New textbooks glorified French Culture, and justified, colonial rule.
    (iv) In the textbooks, the Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, who were only capable of manual labour.
    (v) The school children were taught that only French rule could provide a conducive atmosphere for the overall development of the Vietnamese, whereas the reality was opposite.

    Q.2. How was education used as a weapon by the Vietnamese to fight against the colonialism ? Explain.
    Ans. (i) Curriculum and locals : Vietnamese teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum framed by the French. Sometimes, there was open opposition and at other times, there was silent resistance. As the number of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes, they quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
    (ii) Incident of Saigon School : When a Vietnamese girl was terminated over the issue of front seat the whole school protested, and forced the authorities to take her back. It was a victory for the educated class.
    (iii) Education and students : Students were inspired by patriotic feelings, and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of the society. By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan. To awaken the people against the colonial government, they started publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.
    (iv) Education as a weapon : The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. On the other hand, the educated class wanted to use education as a means to fight against the colonial rule.
    (v) Education and Vietnamark intellectuals : The French tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of the French civilisation, and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. On the other hand, Vietnamese intellectuals, feared that Vietnam was losing not only the control over its territory, but also its very identity: Its own culture and customs, were being devalued, and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.
    (vi) The battle against French colonial education became a part of the larger battle against colonialism, and for independence.

    Q.3. Who was Huynh Phu So ? Explain his role in arousing the anti-imperialist sentiments.
    Ans. Huynh Fhu So was a Buddhist religious scholar who was a native of the Mekong river delta.
    His role in arousing the anti-imperialist sentiments :
    (i) Founder of Hoa Hao Movement: Huynh Phu was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement which drew on religious ideas popular in the anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century.
    (ii) Social reformer : He was a great social reformer as he opposed the sale of child brides, gambling, and the use of alcohol and opium.
    (iii) Struggle against foreign rule: Huynh Phu So faced a great deal of trouble when he began to spread his ideas of religion, because most of his followers were Vietnamese nationalists.
    The colonial government declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze, and put him in a mental asylum. The French authorities exiled him to Laos, and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.

    Q 4. Who was Phan Boi Chau ? Explain his role in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments.
    Ans. Phan Boi Chau was one of the leading figure in the anti-colonial movement in early 20th century Vietnam.
    (i) Vietnamese Nationalist : Phan Boi Chau was a Vietnamese nationalist and a freedom fighter. He formed the Revolutionary Society in 1903 under the leadership of Prince Cuong De.
    (ii) Literary Work : He wrote his world famous book, ‘The History of the Loss of Vietnam* under the strong influence and advice of Cuong De. The book became a widely read bestseller in Vietnam and China. It was also made into a play. The book focused on two themes.
    The loss of sovereignty and the severing ties with China.
    (iii) His ideas regarding Freedom of Vietnam : He wanted to use monarchy in order to push French out of the country as he was of the opinion that the monarchy was still highly respected by wealthy landowners.
    (iv) His Work in Japan : In 1905 he went to Japan to get the Japanese assistance for the independence of Vietnam. In Japan, he started the Go – East Movement with an aim to provide western education to the young Vietnamese.

    Q.5. Who was Phan Chu Trinh ? How did he help in the modernisation of Vietnam ? [CBSE March 2011]
    Or
    Explain any four ideas of Phan Chu Trinh. [CBSE March 2011, 2012, 2013(D), 2014(F)]
    Or
    Explain the features of the ideology of Phan Chu Trinh. [CBSE March 2011]
    Or
    Explain the ideas of Phan Chu Trinh to establish a democratic republic in Viet­nam. [CBSE 2014]
    Ans. Phan Chu Trinh was also one of the greatest Vietnamese nationalists of the early 20th century.
    (i) Against the French : He sought to end France’s brutal occupation in Vietnam.
    (ii) Western Culture : His ideas regarding the Western culture differed with Phan Boi Chau. He did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilisation.
    (iii) Hostile to monarchy : He was intensely hostile to the monarchy, and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. He was in favour of establishing a Democratic Republic.
    (iv) Democratic ideals : Phan Chu Trinh was influenced by the democratic ideals of the West. He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideals. He demanded that the French should set up legal and educational institutions and should develop agriculture and industries.

    Q.6. What was the role of religious groups in the development of the anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam? [CBSE March 2011]
    Ans. (I) Scholar’s Revolt :
    (i) This was an anti French Movement launched in 1887.
    (ii) The main aim of the movement was loyalty to the monarchy and hatred for the French.
    (iii) The movement was led by officials at the imperial court.
    (iv) The movement was very intense in Ngu An and Ha tien province.
    (v) More than 1,000 Catholics were killed by the rebels.
    (vi) Though movement was crushed by the French but it served to inspire people to rise up against the French.
    (II) Hoa Hao Movement :
    (i) It was an anti French movement launched in 1939.
    (b) The movement was launched by Huynh Phu So, a Buddhist scholar. He was also a social reformer who was against gambling, child marriage, useless . , expenditure, etc.
    (iii) The movement was based on religious ideas.
    (iv)The movement played a major role in arousing the anti French feelings
    (III) Role of Phan Boi Chu : For details refer
    Phan Boi Chau was one of the leading figure in the anti-colonial movement in early 20th century Vietnam.
    (i) Vietnamese Nationalist : Phan Boi Chau was a Vietnamese nationalist and a freedom fighter. He formed the Revolutionary Society in 1903 under the leadership of Prince Cuong De.
    (ii) Literary Work : He wrote his world famous book, ‘The History of the Loss of Vietnam* under the strong influence and advice of Cuong De. The book became a widely read bestseller in Vietnam and China. It was also made into a play. The book focused on two themes.
    The loss of sovereignty and the severing ties with China.
    (iii) His ideas regarding Freedom of Vietnam : He wanted to use monarchy in order to push French out of the country as he was of the opinion that the monarchy was still highly respected by wealthy landowners.
    (iv) His Work in Japan : In 1905 he went to Japan to get the Japanese assistance for the independence of Vietnam. In Japan, he started the Go – East Movement with an aim to provide western education to the young Vietnamese.
    (IV)Role of Phan Chu Trinh :
    Phan Chu Trinh was also one of the greatest Vietnamese nationalists of the early 20th century.
    (i) Against the French : He sought to end France’s brutal occupation in Vietnam.
    (ii) Western Culture : His ideas regarding the Western culture differed with Phan Boi Chau. He did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilisation.
    (iii) Hostile to monarchy : He was intensely hostile to the monarchy, and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. He was in favour of establishing a Democratic Republic.
    (iv) Democratic ideals : Phan Chu Trinh was influenced by the democratic ideals of the West. He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideals. He demanded that the French should set up legal and educational institutions and should develop agriculture and industries.

    Q.7. ‘Early Vietnamese nationalists had close relationship with Japan and China’. ^ Explain by giving examples.[CBSE 2013 (D)]
    Or
    Describe any five features of the ‘Go East Movement’.
    Ans. (i) Proper place for a strong network : Early Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China. Both these countries were models for those looking for change, a refuge for those who were escaping from the colonial government. These countries provided a location where a wider Asian network of revolutionaries could be established. Even Phan Boi Chau lived in Japan for some years.
    (ii) Go East Movement :
    1. It was a Vietnamese political movement founded by Phan Boi Chau at the start of the 20th century.
    2. The main aim of the movement was to encourage young Vietnamese to go east to Japan to get modem education.
    3. Many young students went to Japan to get modern education. For most of them the primary objective was to drive out the French and to re-establish the Nguyen Dynasty.
    4. They also sought Japan’s support in their struggle against French.
    5. They even established a branch of the Restoration Society in Tokyo.
    6. But the movement slowed down after 1908 when Japanese Government banned the activities of the nationalists. Even Phan Boi Chau and many other leaders were deported.
    (iii) Restoration Society : Most of the nationalists also wanted to establish a strong military in Vietnam on the lines of Japan which had defeated Russia in 1907. Vietnamese students established a branch of the Restoration Society in Tokyo but after 1908, the Japanese Ministry of Interior clamped down on them. Many nationalists including Phan Boi Chau, were deported, and forced to seek exile in China and Thailand.
    (iv) Chinese Revolution, a source of inspiration : The Vietnamese nationalists were also inspired by the revolutionary movement which occurred in China. In 1911, the long established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun Yat Sen and a ‘Republic’ was set up. Inspired by these developments, the Vietnamese students organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam (Viet-Nam Quan Phuc Hoi).

    Q.8. Under what circumstances Vietnam was divided into the north and south Vietnam ?
    Or
    Explain any four major challenges faced by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. [CBSE 2008, 2009(0), March 2012]
    Ans. (i) In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam. To fight against the Japanese, Viet Minh was formed.
    (ii) Viet Minh recaptured Hanoi in 1945. The Democratic Republic of Viet Minh was formed, and Ho Chi Minh became the chairman.
    (iii) The new ‘Republic’ faced a number of challenges. To restore its hold over Indo­China, the French troops entered Vietnam, and started fighting the Viet Minh.
    (iv) The French tried to regain control by using the Emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the French offensive, the Viet Minh were forced to retreat to the hills.
    (v) The war had taken a new turn because it became a part of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    (vi) Soviet Union and China gave support to Ho Chi Minh, whereas France got the support of Britain and the United States.
    (vii) In 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded about 16,000 French troops and inflicted upon them a crushing defeat at the fortress of Dien Bien Phu.
    (viii) It forced the French government to initiate negotiations with the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
    (ix) In July 1954, an international conference was held at Geneva.
    (x) The Geneva Agreement of 21st July, 1954 decided to divide Vietnam temporarily into the North Vietnam and the South Vietnam.

    Q.9. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within US itself ? [CBSE March 2011 ]
    Or
    “The war grew out of a fear among US policy planners that the victory of the Ho Chi Minh Government would start a domino effect.” Support the statement explaining three reasons. [CBSE 2012]
    Ans. The Vietnamese had to fight a long struggle first against France, and then against Japan and lastly, against USA. Following were some of the causes for the involvement of US in Vietnam :
    (i) Spread of Communism : First and the foremost was the fear of the spread of Communism in Vietnam. The United States (US) regarded the spread of Communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. The US was ready to fight against Communism in any part of the world. So when Communism showed its head in Vietnam, it at once came forward to check it.
    (ii) To Support France : The second cause of US entry in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the champion of the capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of the capitalist countries, especially France which was an ally of the US in the Second World War.
    (iii) Against Unification : USA was against the unification of Vietnam. The Geneva Conference had divided Vietnam into two parts : North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the Ho Chi Minh government in North Vietnam and National Liberation Front in South Vietnam tried to unify the two parts, in violation of the Geneva Conference, US could not tolerate this. Hence, it decided to intervene in Vietnam.
    Within no time, the United States sent a large number of US soldiers with the latest war equipment. This dragged on for many years (1965-1972).
    Effects of US Involvement on Life within US itself : The US involvement in Vietnam had a far reaching effect on US itself. America had to suffer a huge loss of men and money though she caused great destruction in North Vietnam through bombardment.
    America lost about 75,000 soldiers in the war by 1975 A.D. It evoked strong reaction in America. Various countries of the world strongly criticised the American intervention in the internal affairs of Vietnam. As a result, America was compelled to start the withdrawal of its troops in April 1975. Saigon also surrendered after the withdrawal of the American troops. In this way, the United Vietnam came into existence on April 30, 1975 A.D.

    Q.10. Explain the steps taken by the French in the field of education in Vietnam. What was their motive behind this ? [CBSE March 2011]
    Ans. (i) French Schools : French missionaries arrived in Vietnam in the 17th century, so they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
    (ii) Replacing Chinese and local languages : The elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture and language. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they decided to replace the Chinese and local languages by French.
    (iii) New text books : To control the educational system textbooks were rewritten. School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative.
    (iv) The Tonkin Free Schools : These schools were started in 1907 to provide a Western style education. This education included classes in science, hygiene and French (these classes were held in the evening and had to be paid for separately).
    Motives :
    (i) To consolidate their power : The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
    (ii) Educated labour for administration :
    The French needed an educated local labour force.
    (iv) To demonstrate superiority of French culture : Many scholars believed that by learning the language, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France. This would help create an ‘Asiatic France solidly tied to European France’. The educated people in Vietnam would respect French sentiments and ideals, see the superiority of French culture, and work for the French.

    Q.11. (i) Why did the U.S. government decide to intervene in the Civil War in Vietnam ?
    (ii) What were its effects on the people of Vietnam ? [CBSE March 2012]
    Or
    The phase of struggle between 1965-1972 with US was called brutal of Vietnamese. Explain the reasons. [CBSE 2014]
    Ans. (I) The Vietnamese had to fight a long struggle first against France, and then against Japan and lastly, against USA. Following were some of the causes for the involvement of US in Vietnam :
    (i) Spread of Communism : First and the foremost was the fear of the spread of Communism in Vietnam. The United States (US) regarded the spread of Communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. The US was ready to fight against Communism in any part of the world. So when Communism showed its head in Vietnam, it at once came forward to check it.
    (ii) To Support France : The second cause of US entry in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the champion of the capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of the capitalist countries, especially France which was an ally of the US in the Second World War.
    (iii) Against Unification : USA was against the unification of Vietnam. The Geneva Conference had divided Vietnam into two parts : North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the Ho Chi Minh government in North Vietnam and National Liberation Front in South Vietnam tried to unify the two parts, in violation of the Geneva Conference, US could not tolerate this. Hence, it decided to intervene in Vietnam.
    Within no time, the United States sent a large number of US soldiers with the latest war equipment. This dragged on for many years (1965-1972).
    Effects of US Involvement on Life within US itself : The US involvement in Vietnam had a far reaching effect on US itself. America had to suffer a huge loss of men and money though she caused great destruction in North Vietnam through bombardment.
    America lost about 75,000 soldiers in the war by 1975 A.D. It evoked strong reaction in America. Various countries of the world strongly criticised the American intervention in the internal affairs of Vietnam. As a result, America was compelled to start the withdrawal of its troops in April 1975. Saigon also surrendered after the withdrawal of the American troops. In this way, the United Vietnam came into existence on April 30, 1975 A.D.
    Effects on the people of Vietnam :
    (i) The phase of struggle with the US was brutal. Thousands of US troops, equipped with heavy weapons and tanks and backed by the most powerful bombers of the time, B52s, were actively engaged. The massive attacks and indiscriminate use of chemical and biological weapons – Napalm, Agent Orange, and phosphorous bombs – destroyed many villages and forests.
    (ii) The war intensified the cold war between the communist and capitalist countries.
    (iii) The war provided an opportunity to Vietnamese women to serve in the Army as soldiers and nurses.

    Q-12. How was Vietnam unified ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
    Ans. (i) Vietnam was divided into North and South under the Geneva Agreement of 1954.
    (ii) Ho Chi Minh and Communists took control of the north while south was under Bao Dai Regime.
    (iii) With the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, the NLF fought for the unification of country.
    (iv) US entry into the war proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans.
    (v) The USA forces withdraw in 1974. The NLF occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unified Vietnam.

    Q.13. “US entry into the war marked a new phase that proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans.” Explain. [CBSE 2014]
    Ans. (I) The Vietnamese had to fight a long struggle first against France, and then against Japan and lastly, against USA. Following were some of the causes for the involvement of US in Vietnam :
    (i) Spread of Communism : First and the foremost was the fear of the spread of Communism in Vietnam. The United States (US) regarded the spread of Communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. The US was ready to fight against Communism in any part of the world. So when Communism showed its head in Vietnam, it at once came forward to check it.
    (ii) To Support France : The second cause of US entry in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the champion of the capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of the capitalist countries, especially France which was an ally of the US in the Second World War.
    (iii) Against Unification : USA was against the unification of Vietnam. The Geneva Conference had divided Vietnam into two parts : North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the Ho Chi Minh government in North Vietnam and National Liberation Front in South Vietnam tried to unify the two parts, in violation of the Geneva Conference, US could not tolerate this. Hence, it decided to intervene in Vietnam.
    Within no time, the United States sent a large number of US soldiers with the latest war equipment. This dragged on for many years (1965-1972).
    Effects of US Involvement on Life within US itself : The US involvement in Vietnam had a far reaching effect on US itself. America had to suffer a huge loss of men and money though she caused great destruction in North Vietnam through bombardment.
    America lost about 75,000 soldiers in the war by 1975 A.D. It evoked strong reaction in America. Various countries of the world strongly criticised the American intervention in the internal affairs of Vietnam. As a result, America was compelled to start the withdrawal of its troops in April 1975. Saigon also surrendered after the withdrawal of the American troops. In this way, the United Vietnam came into existence on April 30, 1975 A.D.
    (II) The Vietnamese had to fight a long struggle first against France, and then against Japan and lastly, against USA. Following were some of the causes for the involvement of US in Vietnam :
    (i) Spread of Communism : First and the foremost was the fear of the spread of Communism in Vietnam. The United States (US) regarded the spread of Communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. The US was ready to fight against Communism in any part of the world. So when Communism showed its head in Vietnam, it at once came forward to check it.
    (ii) To Support France : The second cause of US entry in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the champion of the capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of the capitalist countries, especially France which was an ally of the US in the Second World War.
    (iii) Against Unification : USA was against the unification of Vietnam. The Geneva Conference had divided Vietnam into two parts : North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the Ho Chi Minh government in North Vietnam and National Liberation Front in South Vietnam tried to unify the two parts, in violation of the Geneva Conference, US could not tolerate this. Hence, it decided to intervene in Vietnam.
    Within no time, the United States sent a large number of US soldiers with the latest war equipment. This dragged on for many years (1965-1972).
    Effects of US Involvement on Life within US itself : The US involvement in Vietnam had a far reaching effect on US itself. America had to suffer a huge loss of men and money though she caused great destruction in North Vietnam through bombardment.
    America lost about 75,000 soldiers in the war by 1975 A.D. It evoked strong reaction in America. Various countries of the world strongly criticised the American intervention in the internal affairs of Vietnam. As a result, America was compelled to start the withdrawal of its troops in April 1975. Saigon also surrendered after the withdrawal of the American troops. In this way, the United Vietnam came into existence on April 30, 1975 A.D.

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