Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands
- Prior to the rise of Islam, Arabia was quite backward socially, politically, economically and religiously in the 7th century.
- Before the rise of Islam, Arabia was dominated by the Bedouins, a nomadic tribe.
- Family was the basic unit of the Arabian society. Patriarchal family system was prevalent in which the head of the family was the eldest male member.
- The position of the women in the society was very deplorable.
- Date-palm and milk were the main constituents of their food items.
- Institution of slavery was also prevalent in the society. The slaves were treated ruthlessly and were severely punished if broke the social norms. k
- Prior to the rise of Islam, the trade was not much developed. It was because Bedouins were always indulged in loot and plunder and trade routes were not safe.
- The principle of‘Might is right’ prevailed in the society prior to the rise of Islam, because there was lack of a central authority.
- Prophet Muhammad is regarded as one of the greatest personalities in the world history. He was born at Mecca in 570.
- Reciting Raima, Namaz, Rauja, Zakat and Hajj are five pillars of Islam.
- Islam laid special stress on the principle of equality and believed that all men are the descendants of Allah.
- Islam strongly opposed idol worship.
- The successors of Prophet Muhammad were called Khalifas (Caliphs).
- The main duties of the Khalifas were to safeguard and spread Islam.
- The Umayyad dynasty was founded by Muawiya in 661. The rule of this dynasty continued till 750.
- The Abbasids came to power in 750. The foundation of Abbasids dynasty was laid down by Abu-ol-Abbas in 750.
- 9th century witnessed the downfall of the Abbasid empire. Taking the advantage of this, several sultanates emerged.
- The economic condition of Islamic world, during the medieval period was very prosperous.
- During medieval period, a new sect arose among the people having faith in Islamic doctrines, known as sufi sect.
- The Sufis were liberal in their thought and they dedicated their lives for the service of humanity and propagation of Islam.
- Ibn Sina was a great philosopher and a medical practitioner from Arabia. He was also known as Avicenna in Europe.
- Bedouins: The nomadic tribe of Arabia.
- Umma: The society founded by Prophet Muhammad.
- Hizrat: The event of Prophet Muhammad’s emigration from Mecca to Medina.
- Zakat: A religious tax collected from Muslims.
- Jaziya: A tax imposed upon the non-Muslims.
- Dhimmis: They were the protected people who paid tax to the government for the protection of their life and property.
- Synagogues: Places of worship for the Jews.
|595||Muhammad marries Khadija, a wealthy Meccan trader who later supports Islam|
|610-12||Muhammad has first revelation; first public preaching of Islam (612)|
|621||First agreement at Aqaba with Medinan converts|
|622||Migration from Mecca to Medina. Arab tribes of Medina (ansar) shelter Meccan migrants (muhajir)|
|632-61||Early caliphate; conquests of Syria, Iraq, Iran and Egypt; civil wars|
|661-750||Umayyad rule; Damascus becomes the capital|
|750-945||Abbasid rule; Baghdad becomes the capital|
|945||Buyids capture Baghdad; literary and cultural efflorescence|
|1063-1092||Rule of Nizamul mulk, the powerful Saljuq wazir who established a string of madrasas called Nizamiyya; killed by Hashishayn (Assassins)|
|1095-1291||Crusades; contacts between Muslims and Christians|
|1111||Death of Ghazali, the influential Iranian scholar who opposed rationalism|
|1258||Mongols capture Baghdad|