[Time Allowed : 3 hrs.] [Max. Marks : 70]
Questions 1-7 (1 Mark), 8-13 (3 Marks), 14-20 (5 Marks), 21 and 22 (Map Question-5 Marks each)
Q.1.How is the actual growth of population calculated?
Ans. Actual growth = Births – Deaths + In migration – Out migration.
Q.2.Write down the name of any two Modern towns of India.
Ans. (i) Calcutta (Now Kolkata)
(ii)Bombay (Now Mumbai)
(iii)Madras (Now Chennai) (any two)
Ans. The transformation of raw material into finished goods, with the help of technology.
Q.4.What is Common property resource?
Ans. The common property resource is owned by the state and meant for the use of the community. Every member of the community has the right to access and use these resources with specified obligations.
Q.5.Which are the two main types of iron ore found in India?
Ans. Haematite and Magnetite are the two main types of iron ore found in India.
Q.6.Name the land locked sea-port of India. In which state is it located?
Ans. Vishakhapatnam (Vizag) is the land locked sea-port of India, located in Andhra Pradesh. Q.7. Which city is the main polluter of river Yamuna?
Ans. Delhi is the main polluter city of river Yamuna.
Q.8.Explain the concept of Possibilism with suitable examples.
Ans. Vidal-de-la Blache followed the approach of possibilism to study human geography. The possibilism school of thought offers many choices to men. In this approach, emphasis is on man rather than nature and man is seen choosing his needs according to his own culture and is also “The judge of their use”. The French School of Geographers is staunch supporters of possibilism. The main features of this thought are:
(i)Natural environment does not control human life
(ii)Environment offers some possibilities to man
(iii)Environment is inert and man is seen as an active force rather than passive one
Q.9.Define the term “Human Development”. State three indicators which form the basis of calculating the HDI. Name two countries forming highest and the lowest ranks each in HDI.
Ans. Human Development is defined as the process of widening people’s choice and the level of : well being they achieve. Since the quality of life and well being of people cannot be measured quantitatively, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) developed a composite index known as HDI which is an integral organ of United Nation. Three indicators which form the basis of calculating HDI are as follows:
(i)Life expectancy as an index of longevity of life.
(ii)Literacy as an index of knowledge.
(iii)Per capita purchasing power as an index of decent standard of living.
Two countries having the highest HDI are Canada and Norway and the countries having the lowest HDI are Djibouti and Lao people’s Democratic Republic.
Q.10. Tourism is a travel undertaken for purposes of recreation rather than business. It has become the world’s single largest tertiary activities in total registered jobs (250 million) and total revenue (40 % of GDP). Besides, many local persons are employed to provide services like accommodation, meals, transport, entertainments and special shops serving tourist. Tourism fosters the growth of infrastructure and industries, retail, trading, and craft industries (souvenirs). In some regions, tourism is seasonal because the vacation period is dependent on favorable weather conditions, but many regions attract visitors all the year round.
Read the above paragraph and analyse the following:
(ii)How does Tourism foster the economy of the local people?
Ans. (i) Tourism is a travel undertaken for purposes of recreation rather than business.
(ii)Tourism foster the economy of the local people in the following ways:
(a)Growth of infrastructure industries.
(b)Growth of the retail trading services.
(c)Growth of the handicraft industries.
Hence the above three factor promote ‘area development’ and attract tourist with a penchant for experiencing ethnic and local customs. It also enhances the quality of life with good moral values.
Q.11.Write six characteristics of the Panama canal.
Ans. The six characteristics of Panama Canal are as follows:
(i)It connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east and Pacific Ocean in the west.
(ii)It has been constructed^cross the Panama isthmus.
(iii)About 8km of area of the either side of the canal is owned by the U.S. government.
(iv)It has reduced the distance between eastern and western coast of North and South America.
(v)The canal has lock system. Ships cross different level of canal through three locks, prior entering to the Gulf of Panama.
(vi)It has reduced the distance between New York (east) and San Francisco, (west) by 13,000km.
Q.12.Explain any three ill effects of air pollution on human health in India.
Ans.The three effects of air pollution on human health in India are:
(i)Irritation to the eyes, nose and throat and respiratory infections like bronchitis and pneumonia.
(ii)Headaches, nausea and allergic reactions.
(iii)Chronic heart diseases, lung cancer, damage to brain, nerves, liver or kidneys.
(iv)It often affects the lungs of the growing children and aggravates or complicates medical conditions in the elderly.
Q.13. Explain any three characteristics of clustered rural settlements of India.
Ans. The three characteristics of clustered rural settlement of India are as follows:
(i)The houses in the villages are distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures.
(ii)Such rural settlements may be centered around some common point.
(iii)This settlement forms some recognizable pattern or shape like rectangular, radial or linear.
Q.14. What is the meaning of market gardening and horticulture ? Describe any four of this type of agriculture of the world.
Ans. The market gardening and horticulture is one of the most specialized forms of cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers, which has high value and have great demand in urban market. The four features of market gardening and horticulture are:
(i)It requires good and quick transportation system as fruits, vegetables and flowers are perishable in nature . Hence this farming is also stated as ” Truck farming”.
(ii)This type of farming is capital as well as labour intensive.
(iii)More stress is given on the optimum use of HYV seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, other means of irrigation and greenhouses for artificial heating in colder regions.
(iv)It is more common in the densely populated industrial regions of developed countries (North-west Europe, north eastern regions of the USA and Canada, Southern Europe, etc)
Q.15.”Globalisation along with free trade can adversely affect the economies of. the developing countries” . Support the statement with examples.
Ans. “Globalisation along with free trade can adversely affect the economies of the developing countries”
(i)Globalisation along with free trade has helped in widening the gap between the rich and the poor countries.
(ii)The rich and prosperous developed countries greatly influence world trade only for their own commercial interests.
(iii)Most of the developed countries use the markets of developing countries and restrict developing countries to enter their countries.
(iv)Even the local markets of the developing countries are completely under the influence of developed countries.
(v)Issues like worker’s right, child labour, health and environment concerns are completely ignored by the developed countries.
Q.16.What are the functions of rural settlements? Describes three main rural settlement patterns based on structures found in different parts of the world.
Ans. The arrangement of the streets, houses and other functions in rural settlements is
related to its form, environment and culture. As such the rural settlements present varied patterns. Following pattern of rural settlements are generally recognized:
(i)Linear Settlement: The linear settlement pattern is very common and develops parallelly to the roads, river banks and canals. In Kerala mainly linear settlement pattern is found along the either sides of roads and lagoons.
(ii)Circular or Square Pattern: Circular settlement develops in the flat level lands, around a pond , tank, crater, hill top and a cattle corral, for example in West Bengal and Bihar settlements around a village pond is a common feature . In Africa and Europe, circular villages may be seen.
(iii)Cross Shaped: Cross shaped settlements begin as a small hamlet at the intersection of roads. Gradually, it grows along the roads on all sides and appears as a cross or a star depending upon the number of roads joining at a junction.’-
(iv)Nebular Pattern: When the shape of a settlement resembles to nebula, it is stated as nebular settlements. The arrangement of roads is almost circular. Generally the size of nebular settlements is small and they develop around the house of landlord of village, the mosque, temple or church. This type of settlement is mainly found in several villages of Ganga-Yamuna doab.
Q.17. What is the meaning of population growth? Describe two main features each of the four phases of Indian demographic history.
Ans. Population Growth: The net change in the size of population between two points of time is said to be population growth. This change in the population growth is expressed in per cent and said to be the growth rate of population. The four phases of Indian demographic history are as follows:
(i)Stagnant Growth Phase (1901-1921): During this period the growth rate was irregular and there was sporadic increase in population. In this period both birth rate and death rate were very high. During this decade the growth rate of population declined by 7.70 lakh.
(ii)Steady Growth Phase (1921-1951): Due to increase in medical aid and sanitation, there was rapid decline in the death rate. Though the birth rate was very high, it influenced the high growth rate.
(iii)Rapid Growth Phase (1951-1981): During this period the growth rate doubled. The average annual growth rate of population during this period was 2.2 percent because of the developmental works undertaken on a large scale and a great improvement in the living conditions of people. So compared to birth rate, there was rapid decline in the death rate.
(iv)Declining Growth Phase (1981-2001): During this decade growth rate started declining due to success of family planning programme. The mass promotion of female literacy and family planning is responsible for the declining growth trend. The people started following small family norms.
Q.18. Explain any five measure necessary for the promotion of sustainable development in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area”.
Ans. The measures taken for the promotion or restoration of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area are as follows:
(i)Implementation of the better water management, the canal project forms protective irrigation in stage -I and vast development of the crop and pastureland in stage- II.
(ii)Salinity occurred due to water logging should be properly checked, as it increases vast regime in the Thar Desert region.
(iii)Setting up proper infrastructure such as roads, markets, storage facilities and drinking water.
(iv)The construction of proper warabandi (the equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) system for fair and efficient distribution of irrigation water.
(v)Selection and adoption of suitable agronomic practices .People of this region are encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits, dates and palm.
Q.19.Describe the major challenges of agriculture in present India.
Ans. Agriculture is the main occupation of people of India. It is the source of living for about 70% of its working population. It is the base of Indian economy. Despite its dominant role, agriculture has not been able to provide the basic needs of the country. Our agriculture has failed to meet the food grains requirements of the country. Many factors that have hindered the development of agriculture in India are as follows:
(i)Pressure of population on land: Due to continuous increase in population, pressure of population on land is increasing. Due to overcrowding, the per capita cultivated land in India has been reduced to only 0.3 hectare. It has resulted in shortage of food grains. The growth rate in agriculture is also low.
(ii)Inadequate Irrigation Facilities: In India, agriculture depends on monsoonal rainfall. Due to uncertain and variable rainfall irrigation is necessary. Only 22% of cultivated land is irrigated. It is necessary to irrigate at least 50% of the cultivated land to make it a success. Moreover, irrigation is required to increase the yield, productivity and the intensity of cropping to check severe draught.
(iii)Low productivity: In India, the yield per hectare of food grains and other crop is low as compared to other countries of the world. High yielding varieties have been introduced. But only 16% of the cultivated land is under high yielding varieties.
(iv)Poor Techniques of production: Due to continuous agriculture over a long period, the fertility of soils is declining. To maintain its fertility, the use of chemical fertilisers is necessary. Indian farmers have been using old inefficient methods due to which productivity is low. Use of better quality seeds and pesticides can increase the productivity.
(v)Lack of Mechanised Farming: Agriculture is mostly labour intensive to get maximum output. Use of modern machines is limited due to low purchasing power ofTarmers. Farmers still use primitive tools and implements. Farmers need to be provided modern machines at subsidised prices so as to increase the yield.
Q.20.What geographical conditions are necessary for the development of Inland waterways? Write three advantages of inland waterways.
Ans. Rivers, canals and lakes are the main mediums of inland waterways.
Following conditions are necessary for the development on of Inland waterways:
1.Rivers should have sufficient water throughout the year. Seasonal rivers are not much suitable for inland waterways.
2.River must be free from rapids, gorges and waterfalls.
3.River meandering should be minimum so that boat and ships can have straight passage.
4.A good river mouth connects inland waterways to ocean routes.
5.Freezing of rivers in winter hinders inland navigation.
Advantages of inland waterways:
1.This is the cheapest means of transport and is useful for carrying heavy commodities.
2.There is neither any need of lying of track nor it has to be metalled.
3.They are the main source of transport in dense forests.
Q.21.On the given political outline map of the World, following five features are shown. Identify these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each feature.
(i)A major area of commercial livestock rearing.
(ii)A major sea-port.
(v)Largest country of Europe by area.
Ans. (i) United States of America (ii) Valparaiso (iii) Moscow (iv) Darwin (v) France
Q.22.On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(i)Iron ore mine of Karnataka
(ii)A software Technology Park located in Himachal Pradesh
(iii)State with high HDI ranking
(iv)Telugu speaking state
(v)North Terminal of N-S Corridor