Social Science Class 10 Important Questions Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy
Why is transportation necessary?
Transportation is necessary:
- for the movement of goods and services from their supply location to demand location, i.e. to link production centres with consumption centres.
- for the movement of people from one region to the other.
- for carrying out trade at all levels.
- to supply goods, resources, etc. from the surplus regions to deficient regions.
- for supplying relief measures to the regions where some natural calamities strike.
- for transporting raw materials from mining regions and farms to the industries, etc.
Efficient means of transport are the prerequisites for economic development of a nation.
What do you understand by means of transport? Write three important domains of the earth which are covered by them.
Means of transport include all kinds of vehicles, trains, aeroplanes and ships. Means of transport are used for the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. These are developed on three important domains of the earth, i.e., land, water and air. Based on these, transport can also be classified into land, water and air transport.
Today the world has become a “global village”. Justify this statement.
Today the world has become a “large village” because of:
- efficient and fast means of transport and
- development of telecommunication and satellite communication systems.
These two functions, i.e. various means of transport and communication have reduced time and distance, have brought the world closer and the physical distances have become meaningless. For example, now trading from local levels has been extended to the international level and even financial transactions can take place round the world in no time. All this has been made possible because of efficient and quick means of transport and communication.
“Modern means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation.” Justify this statement by giving supportive arguments.
“Efficient means of transport are prerequisites for the fast development of the country.” Express your views in favour of this statement. (2016 D, 2014 OD)
India is well linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size and diversities because of efficient means of transport and communication. They are rightly called the lifelines or arteries of a nation because:
- Economic development of a country depends on the well developed and efficient means of transport and communication.
- They are indispensable for movement of people, goods and services from one place to another.
- They have contributed to socio-economic progress in many ways by connecting far flung areas of the country.
- They have enriched all aspects of our lives — social, cultural, individual and economic.
- They promote trade, tourism and business thus adding value to the economy.
- Transport and communication have made possible international trade which is essential for every economy as no country is self-sufficient in all resources.
- They link areas of production with consumption, i.e. agricultural farms are linked to the markets and industries.
- They help in the balanced regional development of a country.
- They play a very important role at the time of natural calamities, i.e., for providing relief measures.
- Deficient areas can obtain resources from the regions of surplus, thereby making the interdependence among the regions possible.
- They have added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
Why do the movement of goods and services form one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport? Explain with examples.
Transport plays an important role in the economy. Because of transport raw materials reach the factory and finished products reach to the consumer. The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Today the world has converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport:
- Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw materials from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
- Transport helps in the development of communication. Various means of communication help us in interacting with other people in all the parts of the world. It has brought the world closer.
- Transport like railways helps us in conducting various activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimages, etc.
- Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories.
- Water provides the cheapest means of transport and is useful for international trade.
- Air transport provides the fastest, most comfortable mode of transport.
- Thus, it is clear that there are many advantages of transportation and communication. These means help in the development of the country. So they are rightly called the lifelines of a nation and its economy.
How are means of transport and communication complementary to each other? Explain with three examples. (2013 OD)
- Transport and communication establish links between producing centres and consuming centres. Trade or the exchange of such commodities relies on transportation and communication. Transport provides the network of links and carriers through which trade takes place.
- Dense network of roads, railways and airways connect the remote areas of the country hence help in production and distribution of goods and services.
- Advancement in communication system has accelerated trade by carrying information all over the world quickly.
- Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw material from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
- With expansion of rail, ocean and air transport, better means of refrigeration and preservation, trade has experienced spatial expansion.
Examine with examples the role of means of transport and communication in making our life prosperous and comfortable.
Transport and communication have a major role to play in making our lives prosperous and comfortable:
- Means of transport provide seamless movement of goods and people and thus facilitate various economic activities.
- Means of communication help in flow of information which is necessary for proper management of supply chain and financial transactions. Today, we are living in the age of communication, using telephone, television, films and Internet. Even books, magazines and newspapers are important means of communication.
- Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances, bringing the world closer. Modern life is so complex that one has to depend on others. The same is true of the countries as well. No country today can prosper without the co-operation and assistance of others. This requires movement of goods and materials between countries. Trade provides us with our necessities and also adds to the amenities and comfort of our life.
- Transport like railways help us in conducting various activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimage and transportation of goods over longer distances.
- Water provide the cheapest means of transport and is useful for international trade. Air transport provides the fastest, most comfortable mode of transport. Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories.
Thus, means of transport and communication put life into a nation and its economy. Hence, they are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy.
Name three means of land transport and write one advantage of each.
Three means of land transport:
- Roadways. They can be laid in any type of terrain and provide door to door service.
- Railways. They can carry huge loads to long distances, therefore they are of great significance in the national economy.
- Pipelines. These can be used for transporting liquid, gaseous and solid material to great distances at low cost.
Why is road transport more useful than rail transport in India. Give reasons. (2016 OD, 2013 D)
Or, “Roadways still have an edge over railways in India”. Give reasons.
Roadways score over railways:
- Construction of roads is easier and cheaper as compared to railways.
- Roads provide door to door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower as compared to railways which generally leave the people and goods at the destined railway stations.
- Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope and, as such, can traverse through mountainous terrain. But railways cannot negotiate steep gradients.
- Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
- Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport. They provide links between railway stations, airports and sea ports.
- They link agricultural farms with markets and industries, thus linking rural and urban areas.
Name six types of roads according to their capacity.
Six types of roads:
- Super Highways —Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor and East-West Corridor.
- National Highways
- State Highways
- District Roads
- Other Rural Roads
- Border Roads.
Write the characteristics of Super Highways, National Highways and State Highways.
- These are 6-lane roads built by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) under the Road Development Project launched by the government.
- The major objective of these roads is to reduce time and distance between the mega cities of India, especially the Golden Quadrilateral, which links Mumbai-Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai.
- Other important roads developed by NHAI are:
- North-South Corridor linking Srinagar in the North and Kanyakumari in the South and
- East-West Corridor linking Porbander in Gujarat to Silcher in Assam.
- These are the primary’ road systems which run in the North-South and East-West directions connecting all the states and link extreme parts of the country.
- These roads are laid and maintained by the Central Government, i.e., Central Public Works Department (CPWD) as they are of national importance.
- The historical Shershah Suri Marg, now called National Highway No. 1, links Delhi and Amritsar and the longest highway in the country is National Highway No. 7 which links Varanasi and Kanyakumari.
- Roads linking state capitals with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
- These roads are constructed and maintained by State Public Works Department (PWD) in states and union territories.
- The expenditure or cost and maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of the respective state governments.
Differentiate between District Roads and Other Rural Roads?
- District Roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
- These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
Other Rural Roads:
- Rural roads which link rural areas and villages with towns come under this category.
- These roads received special impetus under the ‘Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna’. Under this scheme, special provisions are made so that every village is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
What are ‘Border Roads’? What is their significance?
- Border roads run along the land frontiers of our country in the northern and north-eastern border areas.
- The Border Road Organisation (BRO) — a department of the Central Government was established in 1960 for the development of border roads.
- Their construction and maintenance is the responsibility of the Central Government.
Importance of Border Roads:
- These roads are of strategic importance.
- They have increased the accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.
- They are the supply lines for our jawans (soldiers) who guard our land frontiers.
Classify roads on the basis of the type of material used for their construction.
Roads can be classified into two categories on the basis of material used:
Metalled roads may be made of cement, concrete or bitumen. These are all-weather roads.
Unmetalled roads are dusty and muddy tracks which go out of use in the rainy season.
Define ‘road density’. What is the average road density in India? Name the states having the highest and lowest densities respectively. What is the main reason for this difference in their densities? (2013 D)
Road density is defined as the length of road per 100 sq km, of area.
Average road density of India is 75 kms / 100 sq kms of area (1996-97).
Highest road density is in Kerala — It is 375 km / 100 sq kms.
Least road density is in Jammu & Kashmir—It is 10 km / 100 sq kms.
In Jammu & Kashmir, road density is less because of mountainous terrain, whereas Kerala has levelled nature of land coupled with agricultural development which supports a lot of population, therefore road density is higher.
What are the problems faced by road transportation in India? (2013 D)
Problems faced by road transportation:
- The road network is inadequate in proportion to the volume of traffic and passengers.
- About half of the roads are unmetalled which makes them useless during rainy season.
- The National Highways are inadequate and lack roadside amenities.
- The roadways are highly congested in cities.
- Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with examples. (2014 OD)
- Distribution of roads is not uniform in India due to different types of geographical features.
- Moreover, the volume of traffic as well as passengers also affects road networking in India. Roads are highly congested in cities. Most of the bridges and culverts have become narrow, old and broken.
- Some roads are metalled, that is well built with brick and cement and about half of the roads are unmetalled specially in rural areas which makes them unaccessible during rainy seasons.
- The regions with rugged terrain have steep roads with lots of hairpin bends.
Railways play an important role in Indian economy. Give supportive arguments.
Explain the importance of railways as the principle mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. (2015 OD)
- Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India, as they link different parts of the country.
- They carry huge loads and bulky goods to long distances.
- Railways make it possible to conduct multiple activities like business, tourism, pilgrimage along with goods transportation over longer distances.
- Railways have been a great integrating force for the nation, for more than 150 years now.
- They have been helpful in binding the economic life of the country and also promoted cultural fusion.
- They have accelerated the development of the industry and agriculture.
Describe the distribution of railway network in India.
- The Indian railways have a network of 7,031 stations spread over the country.
- The route length is 63,221 kms.
- It has a fleet of 7,817 locomotives.
- There are 5,321 passenger service vehicles.
- The number of coach vehicles is 4904.
- We have 2,28,170 wagons which run on the total rail track of 1,08,486 kms.
Which factors affect the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country?
Factors that affect the distribution pattern of railway network in India:
- Physical factors: The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the region will determine the density of railway network in that region.
For example, mountains, marshy, sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways.
- Economic factors: Regions which have rich resources and are economically more developed have denser network of railways in comparison to the regions with low economic development.
- Administrative factors: The administrative and political decisions also affect the distribution of railway network in a region.
Analyse the physiographic and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the railway network in our country. (2015 D)
Or, ‘The distribution pattern of Indian Railway network is influenced by the physiographic factors. Examine the statement. (2013 OD)
Factors that affect the distribution pattern of railway network in India:
(i) Physiographic factors. The Northern plains with vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide most favourable conditions for railway network. The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the region determine the density of railway network in that region. Mountains, marshy, sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways. It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat and forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Economic factors. Regions which have rich resources and are economically more developed have denser network of railways in comparison to the regions with low economic development.
(iii) Administrative factors. The administrative and political decisions also affect the distribution of railway network in a region.
List four factors which favoured the development of dense network of railways in the northern plains. (2012 OD)
Four reasons for dense network of railways in northern plains are:
- The vast level land provided the most favourable conditions for their growth. It is cheaper and easier to construct railway tracks here.
- The agricultural and industrial development in this region necessitated the development of railway lines.
- High population density in this region further required the development of railway lines.
- Resources such as iron and steel, fuels, etc., required for the development of railways are available in abundance in the northern plains.
State reasons for the sparse railway network in Himalayan region.
Reasons for sparse railway network in Himalayas:
- High relief and rugged terrain pose difficulty in construction.
- Sparse population.
- Lack of economic opportunities because of low economic development.
- These are also thickly forested areas.
Where is Konkan Railway Line developed in India and what problems are faced by it?
Konkan Railway Line is developed along the western coast of India through the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. This railway line has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India.
Problems faced during its construction:
- Sinking of track in some stretches.
- Landslides were another hinderance.
What are the problems faced by Indian Railways?
Problems faced by the Indian Railways:
- Many passengers travel without tickets.
- Thefts and damaging of railway property by miscreants.
- People stop the trains and pull chains unnecessarily that causes heavy damage to the railways and also causes delays.
Explain the improvements made by the Indian Railways in its functioning. (2012 OD)
- Railways make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sight-seeing, pilgrimage, transportation of goods and passengers.
- It accelerated the deployment of industrial and agricultural sector.
- Konkan Railways along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods.
- Metro Rail, Mono Rail and Rapid metro systems are helping lakhs of people to commute everyday. These have helped in easing the traffic situation in cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Gurgaon.
- The railways provide effective container service.
What are the advantages of pipeline transportation?
Advantages of pipeline transportation:
- Pipelines can transport liquids, gases and solids (in slurry form) to any distance.
- Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
- Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
- It reduces trans-shipment losses and delays.
- They can be laid in any terrain and even through the water-bodies.
What made the location of inland oil refineries possible? Name any two inland oil refineries.
Location of inland oil refineries was made possible because of pipeline transportation which links them with oilfields.
Inland oil refineries are:
Write about three most important networks of pipeline transportation.
Important networks are:
- From oilfield in Upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad.
- From Salaya (Gujarat) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonepat.
- Gas pipeline from Hazira (Gujarat) via Bijaipur (Madhya Pradesh) to Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh), called HBJ gas pipeline.
Write four merits of waterways in India. (2014 D)
- Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
- Waterways are a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
- They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
- India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coast, and more than 95% of the country’s trade volume is moved by the sea.
Mention any two inland waterways of India. Write three characteristics of each. (2017 D, 2011 OD)
Two inland water ways are:
(A) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia:
- The Inland Waterways Authority has declared this waterway as National Waterway No. 1.
- Its total length is 1620 km.
- It is one of the most important waterway of India which is navigable by mechanical boats upto Patna.
(B) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri:
- The total length is 891 km.
- It is declared as National Waterway No. 2.
- It is navigable by steamers upto Dibrugarh.
What are major seaports?
Seaports which handle our foreign trade are called major seaports. These ports handle 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade.
Name the northernmost and southernmost ports of eastern and western coast respectively.
The northernmost port: of eastern coast — Kolkata
of western coast — Kandla
The southernmost port: of eastern coast — Tuticorin
of western coast — Kochi
Give an account of the major sea ports of India and their importance. (2011 D)
- Kandla port in Kuchchh.
- It was developed after independence to reduce the load on the Mumbai port as the Karachi port had gone to Pakistan after partition.
- It is a tidal port and caters to exports and imports of the granary and industrial belts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
- Kandla port is located in Kuchchh in Gujarat.
- It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports for northern and western states of India.
- Mumbai port. It is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.
- Jawahar Lai Nehru port. Planned as a subordinate and hub-port of the Mumbai port.
- Marmagao port (Goa).
- It is a premium iron ore exporting port.
- It accounts for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore exports.
- New Mangalore port (Karnataka). Caters to the export of iron-ore from Kudremukh mines.
- Kochchi. Extreme south-western port located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
- Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu).
- It has a natural harbour and rich hinterland.
- It engages in flourishing trade with neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives etc.
- Chennai port.
- Oldest artificial port in the country.
- It is second only to Mumbai in terms of volume of trade and cargo.
- Vishakhapatnam port. Deepest land locked and well protected port catering mainly to iron ore exports.
- Paradip (Orissa) specialises in iron ore export.
- Kolkata port.
- It is an inland riverine port.
- It serves as a large and rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
- It is a tidal port which requires constant dredging of the Hugli river.
- Haldia port. It was developed to reduce pressure on Kolkata port.
Write four merits of air travel. Also mention any two demerits of air transport. (2012 OD, 2011 D)
Merits of air travel.
- Air travel is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
- India is a vast country with wide variation in relief. Air transport can cover difficult terrains like high mountains of the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, dreary deserts of Rajasthan, dense forests and long coastlines with great ease.
- Air travel has made access easier in the north-eastern part of the country, which is marked with the presence of big rivers like Brahmaputra, dissected relief, dense forests, frequent floods and international frontiers.
- At the time of natural calamities, relief measure and relief operations can be carried out quickly with the help of air transport.
- High value perishable goods can easily be exported or imported by airways.
Demerits of air transport.
- Air travel is very expensive and not within the reach of the common people. Air travel is very luxurious.
- It is adversely affected by bad weather conditions.
Why is air travel preferred in the north-eastern states? Give reasons. (2014 D, 2013 D)
The north-eastern part of the country is marked with:
- Dissected relief,
- dense forests,
- Frequent floods
- Big rivers.
Under these difficult conditions, the road and rail transport is not well developed. Journey through land transport is very tiresome and time-consuming. So, for all these reasons, air travel is preferred in this part of the country, where special provisions are made to extend the services to common people at cheaper rates.
Name four airline services which cater to the domestic air traffic.
Domestic air services are:
- Indian Airlines which extends its services to neighbouring countries also.
- Alliance Air (Subsidiary of Indian Airlines).
- Private scheduled airlines, e.g., Jet, Sahara, Kingfisher, Indigo, Go Air etc.
- Private non-scheduled operators provide air-taxi service.
What are ‘Pawan Hans’ services? Write two purposes for which these services are used.
The Pawan Hans Helicopter Ltd., a public sector undertaking, provides helicopter services to:
- Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in its offshore operations.
- Inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states, the interior parts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand.
- They are also pressed into service at the time of emergencies and for providing relief measures at the time of natural calamities.
Which is the ‘International Airline’ of India?
‘Air India’ handles our international traffic. It is a public sector undertaking. Jet and Kingfisher are examples of private airlines that fly to other countries as well.
Name four cities where international airports are located and name these airports.
Cities where international airports are located:
- Delhi — Indira Gandhi International Airport
- Mumbai — Chhatrapati Shivaji Airport
- Chennai — Meenambakkam Airport
- Kolkata — Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Airport
Name the northernmost and southernmost international airport of India.
Northern most international airport is Raja Sansi at Amritsar. Southern most international airport of India is situated in Tiruvanantapuram and is called Nedimbacherry Airport.
What is the main difference between means of transport and means of communication?
Means of transport: These are used for the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another, e.g. roadways, airways, etc.
Means of communication: These are used for interchanging messages and ideas between people without physical movement of the communicator or receiver, e.g. letters, telephone, television, etc.
Write two types of means of communication and give two examples of each.
Two types of means of communication are:
(i) Personal communication
(ii) Mass communication.
(i) Personal communication includes sending and receiving of messages between two individuals at a personal level. The important means in this category are telephone, post & telegraph services, fax, etc.
(ii) Mass communication means communicating with several people (masses) at the same time. These are of two types:
- Print media. It includes printed material, e.g. newspapers and magazines.
- Electronic media, e.g. Radio and T.V. This is an important media, especially for illiterate masses of the country.
What are the functions performed by means of mass communication?
Functions performed by means of mass communication:
- It provides entertainment to masses.
- It creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
- We come to know the world happenings, weather bulletins and important international phenomena, developments and researches, etc. through the means of mass communication.
- They help in creating public opinion.
Explain the importance of ‘Radio’ and ‘Television’ as an effective means of mass communication in India.
Because a large part of the population of our country is illiterate, the electronic media of mass communication i.e., Radio and T.V. play a very crucial role in:
- providing entertainment
- increasing awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
Radio. It broadcasts —
- a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages.
- varied programmes for various categories of people in rural, urban and remote areas through a number of radio
stations and transmitters.
T.V. It telecasts —
- a variety of entertainment, educational and informative programmes.
- T.V. is a better means of mass communication as it gives a visual report of world happenings; live telecast of sports and literacy programmes etc., which become more entertaining and meaningful.
Name the mail channels which were introduced by the Indian postal network to facilitate quick delivery of mails. What was the main purpose of this decision? (2014 D)
Mail channels introduced by the Indian postal network are:
- Rajdhani Channel
- Business Channel
- Metro Channel
- Bulk Mail Channel
- Green Channel
- Periodical Channel
The main purpose is to facilitate quick delivery of mail to large towns and cities.
“India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia.” Justify this statement.
- Most of the urban centres are connected by STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialling) telephone facility.
- More than 2/3rd of the villages in India have already been covered with STD telephone facility, through many telephone exchanges.
- In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grass-root level to the higher level, the government has made special provision to extend 24 hours STD service facility to every village in the country.
- There have been uniform rates of STD facilities all over India. Even ISD services are available in most of the cities of the country.
All this has been made possible by integrating the developments in space technology with communication technology and development of computers and internet. Recently a number of private companies have also entered into telecommunication area.
Distinguish between first class mail and second class mail.
Difference between Class mail and Second Class mail
|Class mail||Second Class mail|
|1. Cards and envelopes make first class mail.||1. This includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals.|
|2. They are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.||2. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.|
Write in brief about A.I.R. and Doordarshan.
All India Radio (A.I.R. or Akashwani):
- It broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages.
- It broadcasts programmes for various categories of people in rural, urban and remote areas.
- It is spread over different parts of the country through a number of radio stations and transmitters.
- It is the national television channel of India.
- It is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.
- It telecasts a variety of programmes ranging from educational, entertainment to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.
Approximately in how many languages are newspapers published in India?
Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. Largest number of newspapers published in India are in Hindi followed by English and Urdu.
What is the status of feature film production in India?
- India is the largest producer of feature films in the world.
- It produces short, video feature films and video short films.
- The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.
What is meant by trade? What is the difference between Local and State level trade? (2014 D)
The exchange of goods and services among people, states and countries, through market channels, is referred to as trade.
Local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages.
State level trade is carried between two or more states.
What is ‘international trade’?
Exchange of goods (buying and selling of goods) between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes.
Two components of international trade are — export and import.
Why is international trade considered as an ‘economic barometer’ for a country?
“Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its prosperity.” Support the statement with suitable examples. (2014 OD)
Exchange of goods (buying and selling of goods) between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. It has two components—export and import.
- Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
- As no country is self-sufficient in all resources, it cannot survive without international trade.
- If the balance of international trade is favourable that is value of export is more than the value of import, a country will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
- International trade encourages a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting goods which can fetch more foreign exchange. In this day and age of globalization exchange of goods and commodities has also been overtaken by the exchange of information and knowledge as well.
- A country’s economic prosperity can be gauged by the health of its international trade.
What is ‘balance of trade’? Explain its two types.
The balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import value. Balance of trade is of two types:
- Favourable balance of trade. When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called favourable balance of trade.
- Unfavourable balance of trade. If the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is called unfavourable balance of trade.
Write a note on the changing nature of international trade in India.
International trade in India has undergone a substantial change in the last fifteen years. Liberalisation policies of government and lifting of barriers on trade has made it truly global in nature. India has trading relations with all major trading blocks and geographical regions of the world. In this day and age of globalisation, exchange of goods and commodities has been overtaken by the exchange of information and knowledge. India has proved to be a world leader in software technology and is earning large amounts of foreign exchange through the export of software technology.
Tourism As A Trade
Why is ‘tourism’ considered as a trade and industry in India? Give reasons in support of your answer. (2015 OD, 2014 D)
- With increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting India, we earned foreign exchange worth Rs. 21,828 crore in 2004 which is further increasing year by year making tourism an important trade.
- Over 2.6 million foreign tourists visit India every year for appreciating our heritage, our culture for medical purposes or for business purposes, etc.
- Over 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
- Tourism promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
- Tourism also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
- Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir and temple towns of south India are the most popular tourist destinations. These states earn huge sums of money from tourism trade.
Give reasons for which foreign tourists visit India. (2014 D)
Foreigners visit India for various purposes. These are:
- Heritage tourism
- Adventure tourism
- Cultural tourism
- Medical tourism
- Business tourism
- Broadened cultural awareness of each others tradition.
- It is economically viable. India is a great value destination as tourists can travel cheaply and lavishly.
- Indian hospitality is famous worldwide — ‘Atithi devo bhava’.
- India is an avenue to explore spirituality through yoga, meditation.
- Indian cuisine predominantly, North Indian is world famous.
- India has several historical and architectural attractions. Regional handicrafts and ethnic designs of traditional products attract tourists.