Overview of Topic- Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals
The alkali metals are found in Group 1A (or IA) of the periodic table: hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr) (Fr). These are soft, glossy, low-melting, extremely reactive metals that tarnish when exposed to air (excluding hydrogen). The name stems from the fact that these metals or their oxides produce a basic (alkaline) solution when dissolved in water. Due to their high reactivity, alkali metals are rarely (if ever) found in their elemental state in nature, and are instead found as ionic compounds (except for hydrogen).
In their highest-energy orbitals, alkali metals have only one valence electron (ns1). They are the biggest elements and have the lowest ionization energy in their respective eras. The valence electron is quickly lost, resulting in a 1+ ion.
The alkali metals, with the exception of hydrogen, are solids at ambient temperature but have low melting points: lithium melts at 181°C, sodium at 98°C, potassium at 63°C, rubidium at 39°C, and cesium at 28°C. Sodium and potassium are also relatively soft metals that can be cut with a butter knife.
The salts of Group 1A elements are particularly water-soluble. Because alkali metal ions are big (in comparison to other ions from the same time period), their charge densities are low, and they are easily separated from their anions and solvated by polar solvents like water. The alkali metals react vigorously with water, creating metal hydroxide, hydrogen gas, and heat (except for hydrogen).
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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
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