Study MaterialsNCERT SolutionsNCERT Solutions For Class 12 BiologyNCERT Solutions for class 12 Biology chapter 6 molecular basis of inheritance 6.4 replication

NCERT Solutions for class 12 Biology chapter 6 molecular basis of inheritance 6.4 replication

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Topic- Replication

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Topic- Replication and all chapter Topics produced by qualified teachers according to NCERT (CBSE) book rules are available as a free PDF download. Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Topic- Replication Questions with Solutions to assist you in revising the entire syllabus and achieving higher grades. Register to receive all exercise solutions through email.

Solutions

Overview of topic

During cell division, DNA replication is the process by which DNA duplicates itself.

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    1. The initial step in DNA replication is to ‘unzip’ the DNA? The molecule’s double helix shape.
    2. This is accomplished by the helicase enzyme, which breaks the hydrogen bonds that hold the complementary bases of DNA together (A with T, C with G).
    3. A replication ‘fork’ is formed when two single strands of DNA are separated, forming a ‘Y’ shape. The two split strands will serve as templates for the creation of new DNA strands.
    4. This is the leading strand. One of the strands is oriented in the 3′ to 5′ orientation (towards the replication fork). This is the lagging strand, which is orientated in the 5′ to 3′ orientation (away from the replication fork). The two strands are copied differently as a result of their differing orientations:

    A brief piece of RNA termed a primer (made by the enzyme primase) arrives and binds to the leading strand’s end. The primer serves as a beginning point for DNA replication.

    DNA polymerase binds to the leading strand and then ‘walks’ along with it, adding new complementary nucleotide bases (A, C, G, and T) in a 5′ to 3′ orientation to the strand of DNA.

    Once all of the bases are matched up (A with T, C with G), an enzyme called exonuclease strips away the primer(s). The gaps where the primer(s) we are then filled by yet more complementary nucleotides.

    The new strand is proofread to make sure there are no mistakes in the new DNA sequence.

    Finally, an enzyme called DNA ligase seals up the sequence of DNA into two continuous double strands.

    The result of DNA replication is two DNA molecules consisting of one new and one old chain of nucleotides. This is why DNA replication is described as semi-conservative, half of the chain is part of the original DNA molecule, half is brand new.

    Following replication, the new DNA automatically winds up into a double helix.

    8. After all of the bases have been matched (A with T, C with G), exonuclease is used to remove the primer (s). More complementary nucleotides are used to fill in the gaps left by the primer(s).

    9. The new strand is proofread to ensure that the new DNA sequence is error-free.

    10. Finally, the sequence of DNA is sealed into two continuous double strands by an enzyme called DNA ligase.

    11. DNA replication produces two DNA molecules, one with a fresh nucleotide chain and the other with an old nucleotide chain. This is why DNA replication is referred to as semi-conservative: half of the chain is recycled from the original DNA molecule, while the other half is created from scratch.

    12. Following replication, the new DNA forms a double helix by itself.

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    FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

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