Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 90
- The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
- Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Question.1. Why was the Rowlatt Act imposed?
Answer. The imposing of the Rowlatt Act authorized the government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law.
Question.2. Name the finest quality Pf iron ore.
Answer. Magnetite is the finest quality of iron ore.
Question.3. What is a recognised political party?
Answer. A recognised political party is a party, recognised by the ‘Election Commission’ with all the privileges and facilities.
Question.4. Give an example of a Public Interest group.
Answer. Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation (BAMCEF).
Question.5. What was the main aim of the movement in Nepal in 2006?
Answer. The main aim of the movement in Nepal was to re-establish democracy in Nepal.
Question.6. The currency notes on behalf of the Central Government are issued by whom?
Answer. Reserve Bank of India.
Question.7. Which cases does the district level court deal with?
Answer. The district level court deals with cases involving claims upto ?20 lakhs.
Question.8. In which year did the government decide to remove barriers on foreign trade and investment in India?
Question.9. How did cultural processes help in creating a sense of collective belongingness in India? Explain.
Answer. Though nationalism spread through the experience of united struggle but a variety of cultural processes captured the imagination of Indians and promoted a sense of collective belongingness:
- Use of figures or images. The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as an evidence of one’s nationalism.
- Indian folklore. Nationalists started recording and using folklores and tales, which they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. So preservation of these became a way to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of price in one’s past.
- Use of icons and symbols in the form of flags. Carrying the tricolour flag and holding it aloft during marches became a symbol of defiance and promoted a sense of collective belonging.
- Reinterpretation of history. Indians began looking into the past to rediscover the glorious developments in ancient times in the field of art, science, mathematics, religion and culture, etc. This glorious time was followed by a history of decline when India got colonized, as Indian history was miserably written by the colonisers.
All these techniques were used to bring the Indian people together against the common enemy. (any three)
Question.10. Explain any three facts about the new economic situation created in India by the First World War.
Answer. The First World War created a dramatically new economic situation in India:
- Manchester imports into India declined as the British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army paving the way for the Indian mills to supply for the huge home market.
- As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs. As a result new factories were set up, new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
- Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically after the war, as it was unable to modernize and compete with US, Germany, Japan. Hence within colonies like India, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position capturing the home market.
Question.11. Explain any three beliefs of the conservatism that emerged after 1815.
Answer. Three beliefs of conservatism that emerged after 1815 were:
- Established and traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, the Church, property and family should be preserved.
- They believed in the modernization of the traditional institution to strengthen them, rather than returning to the society of pre-revolutionary days.
- Also they believed that abolition of feudalism and serfdom and replacing it with a modem army, an efficient bureaucracy and a dynamic economy could strengthen autocratic monarchies of Europe.
Explain any three features of the “go east movement” in Vietnam.
Answer. The three features of the “go east movement” in Vietnam xvere:
- Primary objective of Vietnamese students who went to Japan to acquire modem education in 1907-08, was to drive out French from Vietnam.
- Their aim was to overthrow the puppet regime and re-establish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French with the help of foreign arms.
- The Vietnamese nationalists asked for Japanese support to accomplish their mission as Japan had modernized itself and had resisted colonisation by West and its victory over Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities.
Question.12. How is energy an indispensable requirement of our modem life? Explain with three I examples.
Answer. Modem life is highly governed by technology and revolves around it. Modem technology is driven by energy and is highly automated. Every sector of National economy agriculture, industry, transport and commerce need greater inputs of energy. In the i domestic sector also, energy demands, in the form of electricity, are growing because of increasing use of electric gadgets and appliances. Energy? is the basic requirement for economic development.
Question.13. Write the characteristics of Kandla seaport.
- It was developed after independence to reduce the load on the Mumbai port as the Karachi port had gone to Pakistan after partition.
- It is a tidal port and caters to exports and imports of the granary and industrial belts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
- Kandla port is located in Kachchh in Gujarat.
- It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports for northern and western states of India.
Question.14. Outline the values that means of transport and communication help in developing among ; people of a nation.
- Respect for unity in diversity. People from different culture and ethnic backgrounds are able to intermingle and interact.
- It helps to develop love and concern for fellow countrymen.
- It also promotes dignity and respect for national property.
Question.15. Explain three ways under which pressure groups exert influence on politics.
Answer. Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics but they seek to
exert influence on political parties. They have a political position on major issues and take political stance without being a party.
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:
- They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals through campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions and influencing the media for attention.
- They organize protest activities like strikes, in order to force the government to take
note of their demand.
- Business groups employ professionals/lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some members from pressure groups participate in official bodies that offer ! advice to the government.
Question.16. How do democratic governments ensure transparency? Explain any three points.
- Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. So a citizen, who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures, can find out as democracy guarantees to the citizens the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making.
- In a democracy people have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over them. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision-making that affects them all. Thus it ensures transparency by producing a government that is accountable to the citizens and is responsive to their needs and expectations.
- It is right to expect democracy to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to people. To do so, the democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens —regular, free and fair elections, open public debate on major policies and legislations and citizens’ right to information about the government and its functioning.
Question.17. Explain with examples why some laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics.
Answer. Law has an important role to play in political reform. Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. But legal constitutional changes by themselves are not effective, until carried out by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Sometimes it can be counter-productive. For example, many states have banned people who have more than two children from contesting panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor men and women.
The best laws are those which empower the people to carry out democratic reforms. The Right to Information Act is a good example that supplements the existing laws. “Any law for political reforms is a good solution but who will implement it and how” — is the question. It is not necessary that the legislators will pass legislations that go against the interests of the political parties and MPs.
Question.18. Explain the three conditions that determine MNCs setting up production in other countries.
- MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get skilled and unskilled labour at low costs to minimize the production cost and earn greater profits. For example, densely populated countries like China, Bangladesh and India have ample labour and provide the advantage of cheap manufacturing locations.
- MNCs also need close-by markets for their manufactured goods. Mexico and Eastern Europe are useful for their closeness to the markets in the US and Europe.
- Besides these, MNCs also require skilled engineers and IT personnels and a large number of English speaking people who are able to provide customer care services. In addition, MNCs might look for government policies that look after their interests.
Question.19. What is standardization of products? Mention any two organizations responsible for the standardization of products in India.
Answer. Standardization of a product or service is done by government agencies to ensure consistency in quality of products or services. It helps consumers get assured of quality while purchasing the goods and services. The organizations that monitor and issue these certificates allow producers to use their logos, i.e., ISI, Agmark or Hallmark provided they follow certain quality standards.
The two organizations responsible for the standardization of products in India are:
- Bureau of Indian Standards issues ISI for industrial products and Hallmark for . jewellery.
- Ministry of Agriculture issues Agmark for food items.
Question.20. Explain the role of government to make globalization fair.
Answer. The government can play a major role in making fair globalization possible:
Fair globalization would create opportunities for all, and also ensure that the benefits of globalization are shared better. Government policies must protect the interests not only of the rich and the powerful, but also of all the people in the country.
- Government should ensure that labour laws are implemented and workers’ rights are protected.
- Government should support small producers, to improve their performance till the time they become strong enough to compete with foreign competition.
- If necessary, government should use trade and investment barriers.
- It can negotiate with WTO for fairer rules.
- It can also align with other developing countries with similar interests to fight against the domination of developed countries in the WTO.
Question.21. Explain any five economic hardships that Europe faced in the 1830s.
Answer. Following are the causes of economic hardships in Europe during 1830s:
- Europe had come under the grip of large scale unemployment. In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- Cities had become overcrowded and slums had emerged as population from the rural areas migrated to the cities.
- Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England where industrialization was more advanced specially in the field of textile production.
- In those regions of Europe, where aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
- The rise of food prices and bad harvests added to the hardships of the peasants.
Explain the views of Paul Bernard regarding the economy of Vietnam. 5
Answer. Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy-maker who strongly believed that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.
- According to him, the development of economy will raise the standard of people and people would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profit for French business.
- According to Bernard, there were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam, such as large population, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants.
- To reduce the poverty and increase agricultural productivity, it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
- Industrialization was also essential for creating more jobs as agriculture was not likely to ensure sufficient employment opportunities.
Question.22. What was Gandhiji’s idea behind launching the Non-cooperation Movement? Mention four proposals suggested by Mahatma Gandhi with reference to Non-cooperation Movement.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi felt (in his book Hind Swaraj, 1909) that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. It has survived because of their cooperation. If the Indians refuse to cooperate, British rule in India will collapse and Swaraj would come. Proposals suggested by Mahatma Gandhi with reference to Non-cooperation Movement:
- According to Gandhiji, Non-cooperation could become a movement by unfolding in stages.
- It would begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
- Then if the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
- Throughout 1920, Gandhiji and Shaukat Ali toured extensively mobilizing popular support for the movement.
Question.23. Explain the importance of air transport in India giving/me points. 5*1=5
Answer. Importance of air transport in India:
- Air travel is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
- India is a vast country with wide variation in relief. Air transport can cover difficult terrains like high mountains of the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, dreary deserts of Rajasthan, dense forests and long coastlines with great ease.
- Air travel has made access easier in the north-eastern part of the country, which is marked with the presence of big rivers like Brahmaputra, dissected relief, dense forests, frequent floods and international frontiers.
- At the time of natural calamities, relief measures and relief operations can be carried out quickly with the help of air transport.
- High value perishable goods can easily be exported or imported by airways.
Question.24. How does textile industry occupy a unique position in Indian economy? Explain giving any five points.
Answer. The textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy because:
- It contributes 14% of the total industrial production.
- It employs largest number of people after agriculture, i.e., 35 million persons, directly.
- Its share in the foreign exchange earnings is about 24.6%.
- It contributes 4% towards GDP.
- It is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e., from raw materials to the highest value added products.
Question.25. “Most destructive feature of democracy is that its examination never gets over.” Support the statement with appropriate arguments.
Answer. Suitable arguments:
- As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more.
- People always come up with more expectations from the democratic set up.
- They also have complaints against democracy.
- More and more suggestions and complaints by the people is also a testimony to the success of democracy.
- A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project.
Question.26. Explain any five suggestions to reform political parties in India. 5*1=5
Answer. Five suggestions made to reform the political parties:
- Law to regulate the internal affairs of political parties like maintaining a register of its members, to follow its own constitution, to have independent authority, to act as judge in case of party dispute, to hold open elections to the highest post.
- It should be mandatory for political parties to give one-third tickets to women candidates. Also there should be quota for women on the decision-making bodies of the party.
- There should be state funding of elections. The government should give money to parties to support their election expenses in kind (petrol, paper, telephone, etc.) or in cash on the basis of votes secured by the party in the previous election.
- The candidate should be educated, so that he can solve and understand people’s problems. His previous record should be cleared. He should be honest and there should be no criminal case against him.
- Citizens can reform politics if they take part directly and join political parties. People can put pressure on political parties through petitions, publicity in media, agitations etc.
Question.27. What is the basic objective of ‘Self Help Groups’? Describe any four advantages of ‘Self Help Groups’ for the poor.
Answer. The basic objective of ‘Self Help Groups’ is to organize rural poor, particularly women belonging to one neighbourhood into small Self Help Groups (15-20 members). These members save regularly and the amount varies from ?25-100 or more.
The four advantages of ‘Self Help Groups’ are as follows:
- The members can take small loans from the group itself to meet their needs. The group charges interest on these loans which is still less than what moneylenders charge.
- After a year or two, if the group is regular in savings, it becomes eligible for availing loan from the bank which is sanctioned in the name of the group to create self employment opportunities.
For instance, small loans are provided to the members for releasing mortgaged land, meeting working capital needs, for acquiring assets like sewing machines, handlooms, cattle etc.
- Banks are willing to lend to the poor women when organized in SHGs, even though they have no collateral as such. Thus, the SHGs help women to become financially self reliant.
- The regular meetings of the group provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic violence etc.
Question.28. (a) Explain two reasons responsible for enacting ‘Consumer Protection Act 1986 by the Government of India.
(b) Consumers have the right to be informed about goods and services they purchase. Explain its three advantages.
Answer. (a) The ‘Consumer Protection Act, 1986’ was enacted:
- to protect consumers in the market place and promote the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices like rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing over pricing, adulteration of food and edible oil.
- to stop big companies from manipulating the market by giving false information through media, thereby exploiting the consumers.
- to give rights to consumers to represent in the Consumer Court and seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation.
(b) It is mandatory for the manufacturer to display certain details on the packing because consumers have the right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services they purchase. These details are about ingredients used, price, quantity, quality, potency, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the manufacturer.
The advantages of this rule are:
- Consumers can use this information to complain and ask for compensation or replacement if the product proves to be defective in any manner. For example, if we buy a product and find it defective well within the expiry period, we can ask for a replacement. If the expiry period was not printed, the manufacturer would blame the shopkeeper and will not accept the responsibility.
- One can protest and’complain if someone sells a good at more than the printed price on the packet. This is indicated by ‘MRF—maximum retail price. In fact if the MRP is missing from the packing, a consumer can bargain with the seller to sell at less than the MRP.
- In October 2005, the Government of India enacted a law known as RTI (Right to Information) Act, which ensures its citizens all the information about the functions of government departments. The RTI Act gives consumers the power to question the government about the functions and various services provided by the government.
Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
(a) The place where Indian National Congress session of December 1920 was held.
(b) The place where the cotton mill workers satyagraha was held.
(c) The place where Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress session was held in December, 1920.
(2) Name the place where the cotton mill workers satyagraha took place.
(3) Name the place where the Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place.
Answer. (1) Nagpur (2) Ahmedabad (3) Amritsar
Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
A. Coal Mine
B. International airport
(b) Locate and label
(i) Mohali—Software Technology Park
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(1) Name the southern terminal station of the North-South Corridor.
(2) In which state is the Rawat Bhata Nuclear power plant located?
(3) In which state is the Kandla port located?
Answer. (1) Kanyakumari (2) Rajasthan (3) Gujarat
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.10. Explain any three problems faced by the peasants of Awadh.
Answer. Three problems faced by the peasants of Awadh were:
- Talukdars and landlords demanded exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other taxes from the peasants.
- Peasants had to do begar and work at the landlords’ farms without any payment.
- As tenants they had no security of tenure and were being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land.
Question.11. Describe any three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered.
Answer. Three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered were:
- The Napoleonic Code—It finished all the privileges based on birth and established equality before law and secured the right to property.
- He simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed : peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- He introduced uniform laws, standardized weights and measures and common national currency to facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one place to another.
Describe the ‘rat hunt scheme’ ordered by the French in Hanoi.
Answer. The modem city of Hanoi get infested with rats in 1902 and was struck by Bubonic plague
To get rid of the rats, a ‘rat hunt scheme’ was started. To stop the plague from spreading in Hanoi, the French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught. Rats began to be caught in thousands. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as proof that a rat had been killed.
So the rat-catchers also discovered innovative ways to profit from this situation. They began clipping the tails and releasing the rats so that the process could be repeated over and over again.
Question.12. Mention any three characteristics of ferrous group of minerals found in India.
Answer. Metallic minerals that have iron in them are called ferrous minerals. For example, iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt etc.
Three characteristics of ferrous group of minerals found in India are:
- Ferrous minerals account for about three fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
- They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
- India exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals to Japan and South Korea after meeting her internal demands.
Question.16. Describe the movement for democracy in Nepal.
Answer. The Nepalese for democracy arose with the specific objective of reversing the kingCs order that led to suspension of democracy. The popular struggle in Nepal involved many organizations other than political parties like the SPA or the Nepalese Communist Party. All the major labour unions and their federations joined the movement. Many other organizations of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.
Question.17. “Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy.” Explain with example.
Answer. As legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy, democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
- Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Generally, laws that seek a ban on something are rather counter-productive;
For example, many states have, debarred people who have more than two children from contesting Panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor women, which was not intended. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms; for example, the Right to Information Act which acts as a watchdog of democracy by controlling corruption.
- Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
- Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution, but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organizations and media are likely to succeed.
Question.24. “Manufacturing industry is considered the backbone of economic development of India.” Give three reasons.
Answer. Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because:
- Manufacturing industries not only help in modernizing agriculture but also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
- Establishing industries in tribal and backward areas help in bringing down regional disparities.
- Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
- Industrial development brings prosperity to the country as it transforms raw materials into valuable products.
Question.27. What is the meaning of SEZ? Mention any three features of SEZ.
Answer. SEZ or Special Economic Zones are industrial zones set up by the Central and State Governments with world class facilities in electricity, water, roads, transport, storage, recreational and educational facilities.
Three features of SEZ:
- The companies who set up production units in the SEZs do not have to pay taxes for an initial period of five years.
- Government has also allowed flexibility in the labour laws to attract foreign investment. This is done to reduce the cost of labour for the company.
- These are being set up to attract foreign companies to invest in India.
Question.28. How do the large companies often manipulate the markets? Explain with an example.
Answer. The big companies eliminate their competitors by lowering down the price of products thereby establishing their monopolies in the market giving less choice to people.
The large companies with huge wealth, power and reach often manipulate the market in various ways. Some common ways by which consumers are exploited in the market are :
- Goods sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighed correctly.
- The goods sold are sometimes of sub-standard quality, For example, selling medicines beyond their date of expiry.
- In costly edible items such as oil, ghee etc. adulteration is common.
- At times false information is passed on through the media and other sources to attract consumers.
For example, a company for years sold powder milk for babies all over the world as the most scientific product claiming it to be better than mother’s milk. It took years of struggle before the company was forced to accept that it had been making false claims.
Similarly, a long battle had to be fought with court cases to make cigarette manufacturing companies accept that their product could cause cancer.
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II
Question.10. Explain any three reasons for the lukewarm response of some Muslim organizations to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer. Three reasons for lukewarm response of some Muslim organizations to Civil Disobedience Movement were:
- After the decline of Non-cooperation-Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Indian National Congress.
- The visible and open association of Congress with Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha in mid 1920s made the Muslims suspicious of Congress motives.
- The frequent communal clashes not only deepened the distance between the two communities but also there was an important difference over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
Question.11. Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification.
Answer. Contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification. Nationalist feelings started spreading amongst the middle class Germans, who in 1848, tried to unite different parts of German confederation into a nation state to have an elected parliamentarian government. However, this liberal movement was repressed by the combined forces of monarchy and military supported by Prussian landowners.
Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, took the responsibility of national unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy. Under his leadership he fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification of Germany was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
Explain the reactions within the United States to its involvement in the Vietnam War during the 1960s.
Answer. The effect of United States being involved in the Vietnam War of 1960s was also felt within United States:
- Many became critical of the government for getting involved in an indefensible war.
- Anger spread out amongst the youth because of the government’s discriminatory practise. Compulsory service in armed forces was only forced on the minorities and children of working class families and not on the privileged elites.
- US media and films played a major role in both, supporting and motivating the youth to participate in war, as well as criticizing the war as unreasonable.
Question.12. Why is there a pressing need to use non-conventional sources of energy in India?
Explain any three reasons.
- The growing consumption of energy has resulted in India becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas which are found in limited quantity on the earth.
- Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which in turn has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
- Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental degradation like air pollution, water pollution etc.
So there is an urgent need to use sustainable energy resources like solar, water, wind, tide biomass etc.
Question.14. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? 3*1=3
Answer. An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex—from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping. An integrated steel plant uses a blast furnace and iron-ore as raw material.
Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel in gots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
Question.25. The movement in Nepal and the struggle in Bolivia have some elements relevant to the study of democracy. Explain these elements.
Answer. The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government. Despite the differences, both these struggles share some elements relevant to study of democracies.
- Both these are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles. The Nepalese movement arose with the specific objective of reversing the King’s order that led to the dismissal of the Prime Minister and the dissolution of the popularly elected Parliament.
In Bolivia, the struggle was against the privatization and increase in prices of water after the government sold these rights to an MNC.
- In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilization. The popular struggle in the form of a protest turned into an indefinite strike. In Nepal, all major political parties in Parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance and called a four-day strike which turned into an indefinite strike in which the Maoists and insurgent groups joined hands.
In the Bolivian struggle against privatization of water, an alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organized a successful four-day general strike.
Question.27. Give the meaning of WTO? What is the major aim of WTO? Mention any two shortcomings of WTO?
Answer. WTO (World Trade Organization). WTO believes that there should not be any barriers between trade of different countries. Trade between countries should be free.
Aims of WTO:
- To liberalize international trade.
- To establish rules regarding international trade.
Two shortcomings of WTO:
- Though WTO is supposed to allow free trade for all, in practice, it is seen that the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers and continued to provide protection to their producers. For example, farmers in the US receive huge sums of money from the government and as a result can sell the farm products at abnormally low prices in other countries, adversely affecting farmers in those countries.
- On the other hand WTO ruies have forced the developing countries to remove trade barriers.
Question.28. What is ‘Consumer Protection Act’? Explain any three reasons responsible of enacting ‘Consumer Protection Act, 1986’ by the Government of India.
Answer. Consumer Protection Act. The COPRA was enacted to protect and promote the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices.
The rationale behind COPRA (Consumer Protection Act) is to provide the consumers the means to redressal at three levels of quasi-judicial courts—District Forum, State Consumer Courts and National Commission.
This Act has enabled the consumers to have a right to represent themselves in the consumer courts.
The ‘Consumer Protection Act, 1986′ was enacted:
- to protect consumers in the market place and promote the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices like rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing, over pricing, adulteration of food and edible oil.
- to stop big companies from manipulating the market by giving false information through media, thereby exploiting the consumers.
- to give rights to consumers to represent in the Consumer Court and seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation.