Questions 1-8 (1 Mark), 9-20 (3 Marks) , 21-28 (5 Marks), 29-30 (Map Questions- 3 Marks each)
Who were referred to as the colons?
2 Define biogas.
3. What was the SPA?
4. Define Opposition.
5. State two elements of democracy.
6. What is a cheque?
7. What are MNCs?
8. On what type of products is AGMARK marked?
9. What steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective belonging, among the people of France?
State three characteristics of the Tonkin Free School.
10. What were the economic implications of the First World War on India?
11. What were the three experiments Gandhiji made with Satyagraha, in India?
12. How has solar energy a bright future in India? Explain by giving three reasons.
13. Mention three problems faced by the sugar industry.
14. Discuss the advantages of Waterways.
15. What functions are performed by the political parties?
16. Why is democracy a better form of government?
17. “Democracy means delay in decision making”. What would you prefer: the quick decision of a dictator or the slow decision of democracy? What values do you inculcate from the above statement?
18. What are informal sources of credit? Mention any two of its features.
19. What are trade barriers? Why did the Indian government put up trade barriers after Independence?
20. What are the different ways by which the people are exploited in the market?
21. What factors contributed to the great economic hardships in 1830 s in Europe?
What were the various methods adopted by the French to dismantle the Chinese influence on Vietnam?
22. What factors were responsible for the growth of nationalism in India?
23. Suggest measures for the conservation of energy resources.
24. How do industries cause water pollution? Mention five points.
25. What are Pressure Groups? State four of their functions.
26. What factors denote the successful working of democracy in India?
27. What are Self-Help Groups? State any four functions.
28. What has been the positive impact of globalisation in India?
29. On the outline political map of India locate and label the following:
(i) Place associated with the Congress Session held in September 1920.
(ii) Place associated with the infamous Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy.
(iii) Place where Gandhiji broke the Salt Law.
30. Three features A, B and C are marked on the given political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
A. Atomic Power Station.
B. Cotton Textile Centre
C. A Major Sea port in Gujarat.
1.A direct vote, by which the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal is called Plebiscite.
The French people living in Vietnam were referred to as the colons.
2. Energy produced by using shrubs, farm waste, animal and human wastes is called biogas.
3. The SPA was a Seven Party Alliance of Nepal formed for the struggle of democracy.
4. A political party or a group of parties that form part of the legislature but do not form the government. They rather check the activities of the government is termed as Opposition.
5. A formal Constitution, regular elections, political parties and constitutional rights are the basic elements of democracy.
6. A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from a person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been made.
7. MNC’s are the Multinational Corporations that own or control production in more than one nation.
8. AGMARK is marked on the agricultural products that are meant for eating and drinking, like wheat flour, pulses, edible oils, etc.
9. Following were the steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective belongingness among the people of France:
(i) The idea of fatherland (La patrie) and citizen (La citoyen) emphasized the notion of a united community
enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, The tricolour was chosen to replace the royal standard.
(iii) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated in the name of the nation.
(iv) The Estate General was renamed as the National Assembly.
(v) A centralised administrative system was put in place and uniform laws were formulated for all citizens.
(v) Internal customs and duties were abolished; uniform weights and measures were adopted.
(vi) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, was made the national
language. (Any three)
The characteristics of the Tonkin Free School were as follows.
(i) The classes were held in the evenings.
(ii) Science, Hygiene and French were taught along with the study of Western customs.
(iii) The approach of the school was to make the students think and look modern. The school encouraged the adoption of the Western style such as having a short hair cut. Traditionally Vietnamese kept long hair.
10. The First World War had great impact on the economic and political situations in India. The new economic situation as a result of the war were:
(i) War Loans : The World War had led to increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans.
(ii) Duties and Taxes: Custom duties were increased and income tax was introduced.
(iii) Rising Prices : Right through the war prices of goods kept on increasing and doubling between 1913 and
1918. This created extreme hardship for the people.
(iv) Forced Recruitment : Villagers were called upon to provide soldiers under forced recruitment which meant
many of the male members had to go for war. This also had an economic impact on the lives of people.
11. Mahatma Gandhi, after arriving in India, successfully organized Satyagraha movements in various places. His three experiments with Satyagraha were:
(i) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(ii) In 1917, he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat who demanded relaxation of revenue collection, due to crop failure and plague epidemic.
(iii) In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organize the Satyagraha movement in support of the cotton mill workers.
12. India has a bright future in solar energy because
(i) India is a tropical country and has abundant availability of sunshine throughout this year.
(ii) Photovoltaic technology is available, which converts the sunlight directly into electricity.
(iii) It is becoming more popular in remote areas as it will minimise the dependency of rural households on firewood and cowdung.
(iv) It will contribute to environmental conservation and quality manure to agriculture. (Any Three)
13. Problems faced by the sugar Industry are:
(i) Even today old and inefficient methods of production are used.
(ii) Delay in transportation of sugarcane to factories leads to the loss of sugar content in the crop.
(iii) Need to maximize the use of bagasse.
(iv) Seasonal nature of the industry. (Any Three)
14. Following are the advantages of waterways:
(i) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
(ii) They are suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
(iii) They are fuel efficient and eco-friendly.
15. Following are the Functions performed by the political parties
(i) Political parties contest elections.
(ii) Political parties put forward different policies and programmes suitable for the society.
(iii) They play a decisive role in making laws for the country.
(iv) Political parties form and run governments.
(v) Those political parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition and keep a check on the functioning of the government.
(vi) They also shape public opinion by raising issues and launch movements for the resolution of the problems.
16. Democracy is a better form of government because of the following reasons:
(i) It promotes equality.
(ii) It enhances the dignity of the individual.
(iii) It improves the quality of decision making.
(iv) Democracy provides methods to resolve conflicts.
(v) It provides situations to correct mistakes. (Any Three)
17. It is true that democracy means delay in the decision making process, as debates and deliberations take a long time. Whereas, dictators take quick decisions without taking into account the preferences of the people. In this way democracy is better even if it takes more time in decision making. Here the people have full liberty to protest against wrong policies of the government.
Values inculcated from the above lines are Public awareness, Liberty, Equality and Congeniality
18. Informal sources of credit include credit from traders, friends, relatives, moneylenders, employers, etc. There is no such organization to supervise the lending activities of such sources. The main features of the informal sources of credit are:
(i) Rate of interest is higher.
(ii) Such sources often use unfair means to get back their money.
19. Trade barriers refer to the restrictions imposed by the government to increase or decrease foreign trade, e.g., tax on imports.Reasons behind putting trade barriers on foreign trade were to protect the producers within the country from foreign competitions. Industries were just coming up in the 1950 s and 1960 s, and competition from imports at that stage would not have allowed industries to grow.
20. People in the market are exploited in the following ways:
(i) Traders indulge in unfair practices, like weighing less.
(ii) Adulterated or defective goods are sold to the consumer.
(iii) False information is passed through media to attract the consumer.
(iv) In case of complaint regarding a good or service bought by the consumer, the seller tries to shift the responsibility on to the buyer itself.
(v) Sometimes the sellers charge that which was not mentioned before.
21. Following were the factors that contributed to the economic hardships in 1830 s in Europe:
(i) Drastic increase in population leading to unemployment. Jobs were less than the job seekers.
(ii) Large scale migration of people from the rural to urban areas.
(iii) Industrial revolution displaced many who were engaged in hand production.
(iv) Peasants still were burdened with feudal dues whereas aristocracy still enjoyed privileges.
(v) Bad harvest and rising food prices further added to the situation.
The French adopted various measures to dismantle the Chinese influence on Vietnamese culture.
(i) They established French school for the Vietnamese.
(ii) They wanted to replace the Chinese language in schools either by French or by Vietnamese.
(iii) Some policy makers emphasised the use of the French language as the medium of instruction. They felt that through this the Vietnamese would learn about the French culture and civilisation.
(iv) In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide western style education to spread the French culture.
(v) The French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave a challenge to Confucianism, the Chinese religion, followed by many Vietnamese.
22. Factors responsible for the growth of nationalism in India :
(i) Result of colonial exploitation.
(ii) Understanding of the true nature of the British rule.
(iii) Racial discrimination.
(iv) Role of Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.
(v) Impact of nationalist literature, songs, poems, folklore.
23. Measures of conservation of energy resources are:
(i) Use more public transport system.
(ii) Switch off electricity whenever not required.
(iii) Use power saving devices.
(iv) Check the power equipments regularly.
(v) Emphasise on greater use of non-conventional sources of energy.
24. (i) Water pollution is caused by the discharge of industrial effluents into the water bodies.
(ii) The major industries contributing to water pollution are paper, pulp, textile, chemical, tanneries, petroleum refineries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilizers synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber.
(iii) Fly ash phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the solid wastes discharged by industries.
(iv) Thermal pollution occurs when the hot water from factories and thermal power plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. It causes damage to aquatic life.
(v) Rainwater percolates into the soil carrying pollutants to the ground, leading to contamination of groundwater
25. The pressure groups are the organizations that attempt to influence the government policies. They do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinion come together in order to achieve a common objective.
Following are the functions of the pressure groups:
(i) They form public opinion by educating the masses by propagating their ideas through articles, seminars or speeches.
(ii) Pressure groups exert pressure on the government to keep it in its limits.
(iii) Pressure groups propagate social, economic and political reforms. E.g. Voting rights for women, Minimum Wages Act, etc. have been the results of reforms initiated by pressure groups.
(iv) They also act as a link between the public and the government.
(v) They also help in law making. (Any Four)
26.Following are the factors that denote the successful functioning of democracy in India:
(i) Aware and vigilant citizens: People in India are well aware about their rights and duties and constitutional provisions. They have an ability to check the government and maintain balance.
(ii) Freedom of press and media: Free press and media not only keep the people in touch with the governmental activities but also frame public opinion over the grievances faced by the people.
(iii) Healthy literacy level: Recent years have seen a growth in the literacy levels in India which has further helped the people to know their duties and judge what is right for them and their country.
(iv) High morals: People in India have always held high morals and have faced the challenges with a positive attitude.
(v) Accommodative approach: India being a diverse country has enriched the accommodative approach towards diversity and maintained unity.
27. A Self-Help Group is a group formed by the community women, which has specific members between 15 and 20, who meet and save regularly. Saving may vary from ? 25 to ? 100 or more, depending upon the ability of the people to save.
Following are the functions of self-help Group:
(i) To enhance confidence and capabilities of the women.
(ii) To develop collective decision making among the women.
(iii) To motivate women taking up social responsibilities.
(iv) To encourage the habit of savings.
(v) To provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic
28. Following has been the impact of globalization in India.
(i) For consumers, a wide variety of good quality goods at lower prices is available. This leads to higher standard of living.
(ii) New jobs are created in industries such as those making cell phones, electronics, fast food, automobiles.
(iii) Local companies have prospered through supplying raw materials to these industries.
(iv) Top Indian companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies. Some of these companies have emerged as multinationals themselves.
(v) Companies providing services have also benefited from new opportunities.
29. (i) Calcutta (Kolkata)