Q.1. Describe any three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils. How did they struggle for their independence ? [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2012]
Ans. (a) Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
(b) Regional autonomy.
(c) Equal opportunity in securing jobs and education.
They formed several political organisations, but when the government tried to suppress their activities by force, this led to a Civil War.
Q.2. How is power shared among the different organs of the government ? Explain.
[CBSE 2009 (O)]
Ans. (i) Organs of the government: Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of the government. Legislature is responsible for making laws, executive organ is responsible for execution or implementation the laws whereas judiciary is there to provide justice to the people or to solve the disputes.
(ii) Power sharing: In India the Union Parliament, i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha makes laws whereas various ministers and government officials are responsible for the execution of the laws. These ministers are not independent but they are responsible or answerable to the Parliament or State Assemblies. Similarly, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.
Q.3. What is majoritarianism ? How has it increased the feelings of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils ? What was the effect of this on the country ? [CBSE 2011 ]
Why do the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated in spite of their long stay in Sri Lanka ?
What is majoritarianism ? How has it been adopted in Sri Lanka ? [CBSE 2010]
Ans. A belief that the majority community should rule a country even at the cost of the wishes of the minority.
(a) The Sri Lankan government took various measures like declaring Sinhala as the official language and that declaring the state shall protect and foster Buddhism, denial of citizenship to Tamils, and to establish the Sinhala supremacy.
(b) All these measures created a feeling among the Tamils that political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders were not sensitive to their language and culture.
(c) They felt that the Constitution and the government policies denied them equal political rights.
(d) When they tried to raise their demands, the government used force to suppress their demands which led to a long Civil War.
Q.4. Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India. [CBSE 2013] Ans. (1) When power is shared among governments at different levels by division of power involving higher and lower levels of government, it is called as vertical division of power.
(2) (i) In India, this is done by a general government for the entire country, which is called as Union or Central Government and governments at provincial or regional level, which are called as State Governments.
(ii) The Indian Constitution has clearly laid down the provisions for distribution of power. This division of power is further extended to levels of government lower than state governments, such as Municipality and Panchayats.
Q.5. Why is horizontal distribution of power often referred to as a system of ‘checks and balances’ ? Explain. [CSBE 2012]
Ans. (1) Under horizontal distribution of power, power is shared among different organs of the government such as legislature, executive and judiciary. This system is also called system of ‘checks and balances’.
(2) Reasons :
(i) All three organs of the government are placed at the same level.
(ii) The power distribution ensures that no organ enjoys unlimited powers.
(iii) Each organ exercises a check on the others. Thus, this results in a balance of power.
Q.6. Describe with examples the way in which power can be shared among different social and linguistic groups ? [CBSE 2010]
Ans. (i) In some countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements for the representation of socially weaker sections and women in legislatures and administration.
(ii) In India, Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are given reservations in constituencies of Parliament and State Assemblies. There measures are meant to provide them space in government and administration. This would also prevent their feeling of alienation from government.
(iii) In Belgium, the “Community Government” provides equal representation in government to different linguistic groups of Dutch French and German-speaking people.