A coil of self-inductance L is connected in series with a bulb B and an AC source. Brightness of the bulb decreases when
The situation is as shown in the figure.
As the iron rod is inserted, the magnetic field inside the coil magnetizes the iron increasing the magnetic field inside it. Hence, the inductance of the coil increases. Consequently, the inductive reactance of the coil increases. As a result, a larger fraction of the applied AC voltage appears across the inductor, leaving less voltage across the bulb. Therefore, the brightness of the light bulb decreases.