# The lantharude contraction is responsible for the fact that:

1. A

Zr and Y have almost the same radius.

2. B

Zr and Nb have similar oxidation state.

3. C

Zr and Hf have almost the same radtus.

4. D

Zr and Zn have the same oxidation state.

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### Solution:

The size of Zr and Hf is the same because of lanthanide synthesis. The shielding effect can be used to explain lanthanide contraction. The electrons in multi-electron atoms are added to the outer shells. The outer electrons are protected from nuclear charge by the electrons already in the inner shells, resulting in a lower effective charge of the nucleus for them. The inner electrons' shielding effect diminishes in the order of $s>p>d>f$.

This f subshell does a poor job of protecting the outer electron from nuclear attraction, which leads to a stronger pull from the nucleus and a smaller size. The 4f subshell is filled in the case of post-lanthenide elements like Hf, but it is not particularly efficient at protecting the outer shell. electrons with $\left(n=5$ and $n=6\right)$. Zr is comparable to it.

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