Table of Contents
At atmospheric pressure, gases aren’t very effective electrical operators. To send a current through a gas, a particular device known as a gas-discharge tube is required. In most cases, a gas discharge tube is a glass tube with two electrodes sealed via its walls. When a voltage is supplied to the two electrodes, the pressure of the gas within the tube is reduced, eventually, a pressure is attained where a current overflows and the gas glows. When the pressure is between 5 and 15 torrs, the glimmer occurs. Neon signs work as follows: a tube with an electrode at each end is filled with a low-pressure gas and a high voltage (usually between 1000 and 5000 volts) is supplied to the electrodes. The colour of the shine is determined by the gas inside the tube. Neon creates a red glimmer, helium provides a pale unheroic light, and argon produces a blue gleam. Sodium vapours produce unheroic light, but mercury vapour emits blue light. When neon signs reach maturity, they contain either neon gas or a blend of neon and mercury vapour. Using multicoloured tubing or fluorescent coatings inside the tubes, a variety of colours gauging the visual diapason may be generated.
Term Definitions for the Chapter
A stable elementary particle with a negative electrical charge may be an electron. Electrons, unlike protons and neutrons, aren’t made up of even smaller particles. In comparison to a neutron or proton, each electron carries one unit of charge (1.602 x 10-19 coulomb) and has a relatively little mass. An electron has a mass of 9.10938 x 10-31 kg. The mass of a proton is usually around 1/1836.
Protons are the charged particles that make up an atom’s nucleus. The electromagnetic force pushes the protons apart, but the strong interaction, which is greater over short distances, pulls them closer (these distances are a few FM or 10-15 m). Protons are 10,000 times smaller than an atom, measuring roughly 10-15 m. Protons, despite their little size, exert enormous pressures on one another, roughly 100 N, equivalent to the weight of a small dog!
A proton’s charge is absolutely equal to and opposite that of an electron. As a result, the number of electrons in a neutral atom generally equals the number of protons. Quarks, which also structure neutrons, are the building blocks of protons.
The neutron is a potent instrument for studying condensed matter (solids and liquids) in the world around us, and it has substantial benefits over other types of radiation when it comes to studying microscopic structure and dynamics.
Neutron scattering provides extensive information on condensed matter’s macroscopic behaviour, influencing experimental and theoretical understanding of materials ranging from magnetism and superconductivity to chemical surfaces and interfaces.
When the plate voltage is 50V or 60V, the plate current in a diode is 20mA. When the plate voltage is 70V, what is the current?
Because the plate has a 50V or 60V voltage, it works as a saturation current. As a result, the current is 20mA for other voltage values.
Why are HC Verma's answers useful for test preparation?
HC Verma solutions are important since they include conceptual questions, reasoning questions, and numerical problems that enable students to analyze the test pattern and reschedule their exam preparation. For students who desire to excel in their academics and pursue their goals at the top institution for their subjects, HC Verma is a treasure. To better comprehend the subject, students need first properly understand the principles presented in the book before diving deeper into HC Verma solutions. The answers to practice questions for both board and competitive examinations are included in the solutions.
How many HC Verma volumes are there?
The Verma physics solution is divided into two sections: volume 1 and volume 2. Volume 1 covers kinetics, mechanics, waves, optics, and other important topics. Because it accounts for the bulk of problems in competitive examinations, it is a crucial component of the syllabus to master in order to get a better All India rank. Volume 2 covers the electric or magnetic effect, thermodynamics, contemporary physics, and other issues that are more relevant to today's technological context. Both sections are important in qualifying for the exams and laying the groundwork for higher-level studies.