NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Download Chapter-wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Class 12 NCERT Solutions Biology makes it simple for students to grasp ideas from the CBSE syllabus. Furthermore, Biology NCERT Solutions Class 12 is prepared by academic professionals and qualified faculty members. As a result, students have more resources than students on other similar websites. Furthermore, we strongly emphasize learning the intellectual foundations of the CBSE Biology course so that students may grasp it quickly.

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    The topics included in the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 have a major weighting in competitive exams. As a result, we have arranged these solutions in such a way that students will be able to grasp and retain key concepts with ease.

    class 12 biology ncert solutions

    Chapters given in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology are:

    Details and Exercises, along with solutions explained in NCERT Biology Class 12 Chapter.

    Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

    The chapter Reproduction in Organisms explains how different organisms reproduce. Reproduction is a necessary biological process in which an organism creates genetically identical offspring. Sexual and asexual reproduction are the two types of reproduction. When a single parent creates children without the involvement of gamete development, it is known as asexual reproduction. When two parents (opposite sex) cooperate in the reproductive process, including the fusing of male and female gametes, sexual reproduction occurs. These concepts are effectively conveyed through the use of relevant images and examples.

    Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

    Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants explains the anatomy, structure, and techniques of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. Subtopics covered include pre-fertilization: structure and events, double fertilization, post-fertilization: structure and events, apomixis, and polyembryony.

    The following topics were covered:

    Flower structure; male and female gametophyte development; pollination – types, agencies, and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post-fertilization events – endosperm and embryo development, seed development, and fruit formation; special modes apomixis, parthenocarpy, and polyembryony; the significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation

    Chapter 3: Human Reproduction – Term I

    One of the most significant reproductive events in humans is the creation of gametes (gametogenesis), including sperm in males and ovum in females. Humans acquire sexual maturity when they reach a certain age, which is referred to as puberty. There are important differences between male and female reproductive events. This chapter will look at the male and female reproductive systems in humans. This Chapter covers the male and female reproductive systems, gametogenesis, menstruation, fertilization and implantation, pregnancy and embryonic development, parturition, and breastfeeding.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); parturition (Elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

    Chapter 4: Reproductive Health – Term I

    You learned about the human reproductive system and its functions in the last Chapter. This Chapter focuses on reproductive health, which is a closely related subject. The term refers to reproductive organs that generally function in good condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines reproductive health as “complete well-being in all reproduction domains, including physical, mental, behavioral, and social well-being.” Reproductive Health: Issues and Solutions, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility are some subtopics covered.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Need for reproductive health and STD prevention; birth control – need and methods, contraception, and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT; amniocentesis; amniocentesis; amniocentesis; amniocentesis; amniocentesis; amniocentesis; (Elementary idea for general awareness).

    Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

    Genetics is a part of biology that deals with character variation from parents to children and inheritance. The process by which traits are passed on from parent to progeny is known as inheritance, which is the foundation of heredity. The degree to which progeny differ from their parents is referred to as variation. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Inheritance of One Gene, Inheritance of Two Genes, Sex Determination, Mutation, and Genetic Disorders are all covered in this Chapter.

    The following topics were covered:

    Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in human beings, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance – hemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

    Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance – Term I

    You learned about inheritance patterns and their genetic roots in the last chapter. At the time of Mendel, the nature of the ‘factors’ determining inheritance patterns was unknown. During the next hundred years, scientists investigated the nature of genetic material, eventually discovering that DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material, at least for most species. As you taught in Class XI, nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Some subtopics discussed include The DNA, The Search for Genetic Material, RNA World, Replication, Transcription, Genetic Code, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, Human Genome Project, and DNA Fingerprinting.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Projects on the genome, the human genome, and the rice genome; DNA fingerprinting.

    Chapter 7:  Evolution

    Evolutionary biology is the study of the evolution of living forms on Earth. The Origin of Life, Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory, and Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory are some subtopics covered. What Evidence Do We Have That Evolution Is True? How does Adaptive Radiation operate, and what is it? Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, Hardy, A Brief Overview of Evolution, Origin, and Evolution of Man, all of which are important concepts for students to understand.

    Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases – Term II

    For a long time, health was assumed to be a mental and physical state characterized by a certain level of humor. Infections, genetic problems – congenital disabilities and defects inherited from parents from birth; and lifestyle, which includes the food and water we consume, the rest and exercise we give our bodies, the habits we lack, and so on, have an impact on our health. This chapter covers a variety of subtopics, including common human diseases, immunity, AIDS, cancer, drugs, and alcohol abuse.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Pathogens; are parasites that cause human diseases (malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, and ringworm) and how to control them. Vaccines, cancer, HIV, and AIDS are all basic immunology ideas. Drug and alcohol abuse during adolescence.

    Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    More food production is required as the world’s population grows ever-increasingly. Animal husbandry and plant breeding strategies play an important role in our efforts to increase food production. Several innovative technologies, such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques, will be essential in increasing food production. This chapter covers a variety of subtopics, including animal husbandry, plant breeding, single-cell proteins, and tissue culture.

    Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare – Term II

    Microbes and microscopic plants and animals are the most important components of the world’s biological systems. You studied the diversity of living beings in Class XI. Microbes include protozoa, bacteria, fungus, microscopic animal and plant viruses, viroids, and proteinaceous infectious agents. Bacteria and fungus can be grown on nutritive media to generate colonies that can be seen with the naked eye.

    Microbes in household products, industrial products, sewage treatment, biogas production, biocontrol agents, and biofertilizers are only a few of the subtopics.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers are all examples of microbes in use—antibiotics: manufacture and application.

    Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes – Term II

    Biotechnology is the study of using live creatures or their enzymes to create useful products and processes for people. Biotechnology has been defined by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) to cover both conventional and current molecular biotechnology. EFB defines natural science as “the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, components thereof, and molecular counterparts for products and services.” Some subtopics covered in this Chapter include Principles of Biotechnology, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology, and Recombinant DNA Technology Processes.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    The use of genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

    Chapter 12: Biotechnology: and its Application – Term II

    As you may recall from the last Chapter, biotechnology is the technique of mass-producing biopharmaceuticals and biologicals using genetically modified microbes, fungi, plants, and animals. Biotechnology uses include therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste management, and energy production. This Chapter covers biotechnological applications in agriculture, biotechnological applications in medicine, transgenic animals, and ethical issues.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Human insulin and vaccine manufacture, stem cell technologies, gene treatment, genetically modified organisms – Bt crops, transgenic animals, biosafety concerns, biopiracy, and patents are all examples of biotechnology in health and agriculture.

    Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations – Term II

    As you learned in the previous semester, ecology is a discipline that studies the links between organisms and the organism’s physical (abiotic) environment. Ecology is concerned with four levels of biological organization: organisms, populations, communities, and biomes. This chapter will examine ecology at the organismic and population levels. There are other subtopics, such as Organisms Environments and Populations.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Habitat and niche, population, and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate, and death rate, age distribution; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population interactions – mutualism, competition, pre

    Chapter 14: Ecosystem

    As you taught in previous lectures, ecology is a discipline that studies the links between organisms and the organism’s physical (abiotic) environment. Ecology is concerned with four levels of biological organization: organisms, populations, communities, and biomes. This chapter will examine ecology at the organismic and population levels. There are other subtopics such as Organisms Environments and Populations.

    Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation – Term II

    Biodiversity and Conservation cover genetic diversity, species diversity, ecological diversity, different types of species, patterns of variety, biodiversity loss, biodiversity conservation, and other issues. It is possible to conserve biodiversity both ex-situ and in-situ. In situ conservation safeguards endangered species in their natural habitat, safeguarding the entire ecosystem. At Vitro fertilization, tissue culture propagation, and cryopreservation of gametes for fragile species in zoological parks and botanical gardens are examples of ex-situ conservation procedures.

    The following subjects were discussed:

    Biodiversity – concept, patterns, and importance; biodiversity loss; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites; biodiversity loss; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites

    Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

    The human population has expanded in the last hundred years. Food, water, housing, power, roads, automobiles, and a variety of other things are expected to be in higher demand. Pollution is any unfavorable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, land, water, or soil. Pollutants are the culprits behind these unfavorable alterations.

    Other subtopics covered in this Chapter include air pollution and its control, water pollution and its control, solid wastes, agrochemicals, and their effects, radioactive wastes, the greenhouse effect and global warming, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, degradation by improper resource utilization, and maintenance, and deforestation.

    Reproduction, heredity, evolution, food production, biotechnology, ecosystems, and biodiversity are just a few of the fundamental ideas covered in depth. In addition, the principles have been updated to meet the most recent CBSE syllabus.

    Because Infinity Learn is a learning organization, we understand the importance of study materials and how to use effective academic performance. As a result, we developed Class 12 NCERT Solutions, a learning resource aimed at helping students study and achieve their objectives.

    CBSE Marking Scheme 2021-22

    A student will take the board exams twice in their lives. One is in Class 10, and the other is in Class 12. Students can use their Class 10 scores to understand better the topics in which they excel, and their Class 12 grades can help them plan their future. To make it easier for students to study all concepts, the CBSE board has divided the entire syllabus into two terms. After studying the CBSE board’s revised course structure, students can comprehend the chapters worth more marks and practice them effectively.

    The term I and Term II: CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus Course Structure 2021-22

    Units Term – 1 (Chapters) Marks
    VI Reproduction: Chapter- 2, 3 and 4 15
    VII Genetics and Evolution: Chapter- 5 and 6 20
    Units Term – 2 (Chapters) Marks
    VIII Biology and Human Welfare: Chapter – 8 and 10 14
    IX Biotechnology and its Applications: Chapter – 11 and 12 11
    X Ecology and Environment: Chapter – 13 and 15 10
    Total Theory (Term – I and Term – II) 70
    Practical Term – I 15
    Practical Term – II 15
    Total 100

    Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

    Biology NCERT Solutions for Class 12 is more valuable than any other source of information. There are extensive explanations, complete solutions, descriptive illustrations, and more. We also provide accurate and current answers to all NCERT textbook exercise questions.

    With the help of digital files, students can study at their leisure.

    Benefits of Biology NCERT Solutions Class 12

    • Teachers with a lot of experience did the study and produced the solutions.
    • There are new value-based questions with solutions in each Chapter.
    • Jargon-free and easy-to-understand language.
    • The content is based on the CBSE curriculum for 2021-22.
    • There is a lot of coverage of important concepts.
    • The most beneficial information for CBSE board examinations preparation.

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology: A Comprehensive Analysis

    NCERT Textbooks are known for their clarity and straightforward explanations of concepts. For CBSE Class 12 students, these texts are good. It is made up of multiple-choice questions that evaluate their conceptual understanding.

    The Biology NCERT Solutions Class 12 provides all of the necessary content and fundamental concepts to help students prepare for medical entrance exams like the NEET.

    Some of the Important Topics of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology

    • Inheritance Principles and Variations
    • Reproduction in living things
    • Biotechnology and Microbes in Human Welfare Evolution

    Practice Questions for NCERT Class 12 Biology

    1. Apomixis mimics sexual reproduction, do you agree? Justify your answer—also, state how apomixis differs from polyembryony.
    2. How has biotechnology helped in improving the life of Diabetic people?
    3. Mention the role of histone proteins in packaging DNA to form chromatin fiber’s structure.
    4. With the help of a suitable example, mention the role of microbes in

    (a) Single-cell protein

    (b) Organic farming

    1. Differentiate between

    (a) Benign and Malignant tumors

    (b) Viral oncogenes and protooncogenes

    1. What are STDs? State 3 symptoms of STDs? Give two simple principles to prevent infections.
    2. Recently invasion of the forest in the Arctic region has been reported by environmentalists, which was earlier occupied by Tundra vegetation. Identify this problem and explain its causes.
    3. Why are males heterogametic? Can there be female heterogamety? Give an example, if any.
    4. A sportsperson tested positive for cannabinoids. What are these? From where are these extracted? What are its effects on the human body?
    5. What is Bt toxin? Name an organism that produces it? How has man exploited it?
    6. Name the enzymes associated with recombinant DNA technology and explain their roles in the correct sequence.
    7. What is biofortification? List its objectives and give examples of two improved crops released by IARI.
    8. What would happen if the corpus luteum did not degenerate?

    (a) Progesterone will not be secreted

    (b) Endometrium will disintegrate

    (c) Proliferation of endometrium will take place

    (d) Ovulation will take place

    1. “Cleistogamous flowers are invariably autogamous because”

    (a) These flowers do not open at all.

    (b) There is no chance of cross-pollen landing on the stigma.

    (c) These flowers have exposed anthers and stigma.

    (d) These flowers are wind-pollinated.

    1. Which of the following statements is correct

    (a) Surgical methods of contraception do not prevent gamete formation

    (b) In E.T techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus

    (c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women

    (d) All STDs are not completely curable.

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    Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

    What role does NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions have in exam preparation?

    The questions in NCERT textbooks can be a major help in ensuring that you study properly and perform well in exams and assessments. Students can begin practicing NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology immediately, which will result in improved academic achievement. As a result, a firm grasp of the syllabus would be developed.

    < h5>What is the finest biology book for Class 12?

    NCERT Biology Textbook is the most highly regarded book for the Class 12 test. The CBSE curriculum is rigorously followed in these books. It provides a solid foundation for preparation for board exams because it comprises question questions that are based on the CBSE syllabus for the subject.

    < h5> How can I get NCERT Biology Solutions for Class 12?

    To see the solutions, go to the Infinity Learn website and select NCERT Solutions, then select class 12 and then subject. These solutions provided by us cover all these concepts, with detailed explanations.

    < h5>Do Infinity Learn NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology have better quality?

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology are created by highly experienced topic experts who have extensive experience in the field. They curate the solutions by strictly adhering to the latest CBSE board's syllabus and norms. The questions from the NCERT textbook are addressed comprehensively so that students may understand the ideas quickly.

    < h5> Does Infinity Learn NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology help students get full marks in their board exams?

    Yes, of course, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology is one of the top study materials available on the internet. When students cannot find a proper response to textbook questions, they can resort to subject-specific and chapter-specific solutions. It also enhances their capacity to respond to complex questions on board exams. Apart from the board student will also get help in board exams.

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