Study MaterialsNCERT Exemplar SolutionsClass 12BiologyNCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions – Free PDF Download

NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Biology Solutions – Free PDF Download

Class 12 NCERT Exemplar Solutions Biology makes it simple for students to grasp ideas from the CBSE syllabus. Furthermore, academic professionals and qualified faculty members prepare for Biology NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12. As a result, students have more resources than students on other similar websites. Furthermore, we strongly emphasize learning the intellectual foundations of the CBSE Biology course so that students may grasp it quickly.

The topics included in the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 have a major weighting in competitive exams. As a result, we’ve arranged these solutions in such a way that students will be able to grasp and retain key concepts with ease.

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    NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter wise:

    NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter Details and Exercises

    Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

    Reproduction in Organisms is a chapter that outlines how different organisms reproduce. Reproduction is a vital biological process in which an organism produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. There are two types of reproduction: sexual and asexual. Asexual reproduction occurs when a single parent has children with or without the involvement of gamete development. Sexual reproduction occurs when two parents (opposite sex) cooperate in the reproductive process, including fusing male and female gametes. These ideas are well presented using relevant illustrations and examples.

    Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants – Term I

    The anatomy, structure, and methods of sexual reproduction in angiosperms are explained in Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. It also details subtopics, including pre-fertilization: structure and events, double fertilization, post-fertilization: structure and events, apomixis, and polyembryony.

    The following topics were covered:

    Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies, and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post-fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

    Chapter 3: Human Reproduction – Term I

    The formation of gametes (gametogenesis) in humans, i.e., sperms in males and ovum in females, is one of the most important reproductive events. After reaching a particular age, humans develop sexual maturity, referred to as puberty. There are significant distinctions between the male and female reproductive events. The male and female reproductive systems in humans will be examined in this chapter. The male reproductive system, the female reproductive system, gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilization and implantation, pregnancy and embryonic development, parturition, and nursing are all addressed in this chapter.

    The following topics were covered:

    Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

    Chapter 4: Reproductive Health – Term I

    The previous chapter taught you about the human reproductive system and its activities. This chapter focuses on reproductive health, which is a closely linked topic. The phrase refers to reproductive organs that are healthy and usually work. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is total well-being in all reproduction areas, including physical, mental, behavioural, and social well-being. It includes subtopics such as Reproductive Health: Issues and Solutions, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility.

    The following topics were covered:

    Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

    Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation – Term I

    Genetics is a part of biology that deals with character variation from parents to children and inheritance. The process by which traits are passed on from parent to progeny is known as inheritance, which is the foundation of heredity. The degree to which progeny differ from their parents is called variation. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Inheritance of One Gene, Inheritance of Two Genes, Sex Determination, Mutation, and Genetic Disorders are all covered in this chapter.

    The following topics were covered:

    Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in human beings, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance – hemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

    Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance – Term I

    You learned about inheritance patterns and their genetic foundations in the previous chapter. The nature of those ‘factors’ governing the inheritance pattern was not clear at the time of Mendel. The nature of the supposed genetic material was explored during the next hundred years, ending in the discovery that DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is the genetic material, at least for most creatures. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, as you learned in Class XI. The DNA, The Search for Genetic Material, RNA World, Replication, Transcription, Genetic Code, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, Human Genome Project, and DNA Fingerprinting are some subtopics covered.

    The following topics were covered:

    Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

    Chapter 7: Evolution

    The study of the evolution of life forms on Earth is known as evolutionary biology. It includes subtopics such as the Origin of Life, Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory, and the Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory. What Proofs Do We Have for Evolution? What is Adaptive Radiation, and how does it work? Biological Evolution, Evolutionary Mechanisms, Weinberg Principle – Hardy A Brief Account of Evolution, Origin, and Evolution of Man- are crucial topics for pupils to learn about.

    Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases – Term II

    For a long time, health was thought to be a state of mind and body with a specific balance of humour. Genetic disorders – deficiencies with which a child is born and deficiencies/defects which the child inherits from parents from birth; infections; and lifestyle, which includes the food and water we consume, the rest and exercise we give our bodies, the habits we have or lack, and so on, all have an impact on our health. This chapter covers subtopics of Common Human Diseases, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs, and Alcohol Abuse.

    The following topics were covered:

    Pathogens; parasites are causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

    Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    With the world’s population growing at an ever-increasing rate, more food production is a must. Biological concepts in animal husbandry and plant breeding play a significant role in our efforts to boost food production. Several new procedures, including embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques, will be critical in improving food production. Animal Husbandry, Plant Breeding, Single Cell Proteins, and Tissue Culture are some subtopics covered in this chapter.

    Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare – Term II

    Microbes, in addition to microscopic plants and animals, are the most important components of biological systems on this planet. In Class XI, you learned about the diversity of living organisms. Protozoa, bacteria, fungi, minuscule animal and plant viruses, viroids, and proteinaceous infectious agents are all examples of microbes. Bacteria and fungi can be cultivated on nutritive media to produce colonies visible to the naked eye.

    Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Industrial Products, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Microbes in Biogas Production, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, and Microbes as Biofertilizers are just a few of the subtopics.

    The following topics were covered:

    Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and reasonable use.

    Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes – Term II

    Biotechnology is the science of exploiting living organisms or their enzymes to develop products and processes that are valuable to people. The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) has defined biotechnology in a way that includes both traditional and modern molecular biotechnology. ‘The integration of natural science and organisms, cells, components thereof, and molecular equivalents for products and services,’ according to EFB. Principles of Biotechnology, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology, and Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology are some subtopics covered in this chapter.

    The following topics were covered:

    Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

    Chapter 12: Biotechnology: and its Application – Term II

    Biotechnology, as you may recall from the last chapter, is the large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and biologicals utilizing genetically altered microorganisms, fungi, plants, and animals. Therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste management, and energy production are all examples of biotechnology applications. Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture, Medicine, Transgenic Animals, and Ethical Issues are covered in this chapter.

    The following topics were covered:

    Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.

    Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations – Term II

    Ecology is a subject that analyses the relationships between organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment, as you learned in the earlier term. Organisms, populations, communities, and biomes are the four levels of biological organization that ecology is concerned with. This chapter will look at ecology at the organismic and population levels. It also has subtopics like Organism and Environment, as well as Populations.

    The following topics were covered:

    Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate, death rate, age distribution.

    Chapter 14: Ecosystem

    Ecology is a subject that analyses the relationships between organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment, as you learned in earlier classes. Organisms, populations, communities, and biomes are the four levels of biological organization that ecology is concerned with. This chapter will look at ecology at the organismic and population levels. It also has subtopics like Organism and Environment, as well as Populations.

    Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation – Term II

    Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecological diversity, Different sorts of Species, Patterns of Diversity, Biodiversity Loss, Biodiversity Conservation, and other topics are covered in Biodiversity and Conservation. Ex-situ and in situ biodiversity conservation are both possible. In situ conservation protects endangered species in their natural environment, protecting the ecosystem as a whole. Ex-situ conservation procedures include in vitro fertilization, tissue culture propagation, and cryopreservation of gametes for vulnerable species in zoological parks and botanical gardens.

    The following topics were covered:

    Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.

    Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

    Over the last hundred years, the human population has exploded. This translates to higher demand for food, water, housing, power, roads, autos, and other goods. Any unfavorable alteration in the physical, chemical or biological features of air, land, water, or soil is called pollution. Pollutants are the agents responsible for such unfavourable changes.

    Air Pollution and Its Control, Water Pollution and Its Control, Solid Wastes, Agrochemicals, and Their Effects, Radioactive Wastes, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming, Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere, Degradation by Improper Resource Utilization and Maintenance, and Deforestation are among the other subtopics covered in this chapter.

    Several key concepts are thoroughly presented, including reproduction, heredity, evolution, food production, biotechnology, ecosystems, and biodiversity. The concepts are also changed to reflect the CBSE board’s most recent syllabus.

    Infinity Learn is a learning organization. Therefore, we understand how important study materials are and how they affect academic performance. As a result, we created Class 12 NCERT Exemplar Solutions, a learning resource to assist students in studying and achieving their goals.

    CBSE Marking Scheme 2021-22

    Board exams will be taken twice throughout a student’s lifetime. Class 10 is one, and Class 12 is the other. The scores earned in Class 10 assist students in understanding the topic in which they excel, and the marks earned in Class 12 assist them in planning their future. With this in mind, the CBSE board has divided the complete syllabus into two terms to make it easier for pupils to study all the ideas. Students would be able to comprehend the chapters worth more marks and practice them properly after seeing the CBSE board’s redesigned course structure.

    The term I and Term II: CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus Course Structure 2021-22

    VIIGenetics and Evolution18
    VIIIBiology and Human Welfare: Chapter14
    IXBiotechnology and its Applications10
    XEcology and Environment: Chapter14
    Total Theory (Term – I and Term – II)70
    Practical Term – I 15
    Practical Term – II 15

    Class 12 Biology NCERT Exemplar Solutions

    Biology NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12 is a more useful information resource. Extensive explanations, thorough solutions, descriptive pictures, and more are all available. In addition, we provide correct and up-to-date answers to all of the NCERT textbook exercise questions.

    Students can also study at their leisure with the help of downloadable files.

    Benefits of Biology NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12

    • Experienced teachers conducted research and wrote the solutions.
    • In each chapter, there are new value-based questions with answers.
    • Jargon-free and simple language.
    • The content has been created by the CBSE curriculum 2021-22.
    • The Coverage of essential ideas is extensive.
    • The most useful content for preparing for CBSE board exams.

    NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12 Biology: A Comprehensive Analysis

    The NCERT Textbooks are noted for their clarity and plain explanations of ideas. These textbooks are excellent for CBSE Class 12 students. It consists of multiple-choice questions that assess their conceptual grasp.

    The Biology NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12 contains all of the necessary material and basic ideas to assist students in preparing for medical entrance tests such as the NEET.

    Some of the Important Topics of NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12 Biology

    • Principles of Inheritance and Variations
    • Reproduction in organisms
    • Microbes in Human Welfare
    • Evolution
    • Biotechnology

    Practice Questions for NCERT Class 12 Biology

    1. Apomixis mimics sexual reproduction, do you agree? Justify your answer—also, state how apomixis differs from polyembryony.
    2. How has biotechnology helped in improving the life of Diabetic people?
    3. Mention the role of histone proteins in packaging DNA to form chromatin fiber’s structure.
    4. With the help of a suitable example, mention the role of microbes in
      1. Single-cell protein
      2. Organic farming
    1. With the help of a suitable example, mention the role of microbes in
      1. Benign and Malignant tumors
      2. Viral oncogenes and protooncogenes
    1. What are STDs? State 3 symptoms of STDs? Give two simple principles to prevent infections.
    2. Recently invasion of the forest in the Arctic region has been reported by environmentalists, which was earlier occupied by Tundra vegetation. Identify this problem and explain its causes.
    3. Why are males heterogametic? Can there be female heterogamety? Give an example, if any.
    4. A sportsperson tested positive for cannabinoids. What are these? From where are these extracted? What are its effects on the human body?
    5. What is Bt toxin? Name an organism that produces it. How has man exploited it?
    6. Name the enzymes associated with recombinant DNA technology and explain their roles in the correct sequence.
    7. What is biofortification? List its objectives and give examples of two improved crops released by IARI.
    8. What would happen if the corpus luteum did not degenerate?
      1. Progesterone will not be secreted
      2. Endometrium will disintegrate
      3. The proliferation of endometrium will take place
      4. Ovulation will take place
    1. “Cleistogamous flowers are invariably autogamous because”
      1. These flowers do not open at all.
      2. There is no chance of cross-pollen landing on the stigma.
      3. These flowers have exposed anthers and stigma.
      4. These flowers are wind-pollinated.
    1. Which of the following statements is correct
      1. Surgical methods of contraception do not prevent gamete formation.
      2. In E.T techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
      3. Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women
      4. All STDs are not completely curable.

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