Biodiversity describes the richness and diversity of life on earth. It is the most complex and important element of our planet. Without biodiversity, life could not exist.

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    The term biodiversity was coined in 1985. It is essential to the environment and to the natural processes of production. The biosphere refers to a variety of plants, animals, and species of microorganisms.

    It includes the number of different species and their associated wavelengths in the ecosystem. It also shows the biology of living things at different levels.

    It captures the ecological and economic significance. It provides us with food, shelter, fuel, clothing, and a few other necessities. It also generates financial benefits for tourism. Therefore, it is very important to have a good knowledge of biodiversity in order to survive.


    It is subdivided into three types which are listed below:

    1. Genetic
    2. Species
    3. Ecological
    • Genetic Biodiversity:

    Genetic Biodiversity means the difference between the genetic material of living organisms. Everyone of a certain type is different from each other in their genetic constitution. That’s why everyone looks different from each other. Similarly, there are different varieties of rice, wheat, corn, barley, etc.

    • Species Biodiversity:

    Species diversity refers to the diversity of species that are found in a particular area. It is biodiversity at a very basic level. It includes all species from plants to different microorganisms.

    No two souls are exactly alike. For example, people show great diversity among themselves.

    • Ecological Biodiversity:

    An ecosystem is a collection of living and non-living things and their interactions. Ecological biodiversity refers to a variety of plants and animals that live together and are connected by food chains and the food web.

    It is the diversity seen among the various ecosystems in the area. Biodiversity in various ecosystems such as deserts, rain forests, mangroves, etc., includes biodiversity.


    Biodiversity and conservation are very important in supporting life on earth. A few reasons why the importance of biodiversity are:

    • Ecological Stability:

      All species have a role to play in the ecosystem. They capture and conserve energy and produce and decompose living things. The ecosystem supports services that people cannot live without. The diverse ecosystem is highly productive and can withstand environmental stress.

    • Economic Importance:

      Biodiversity is a repository of food-building materials, cosmetic products, and medicines. Crops, livestock, fishing, and forests are rich sources of food. Wild plants such as Cinchona and Foxglove are used for medicinal purposes. Wood, fibres, perfumes, cosmetics, rubber, frames, toxins and corks are all taken from a variety of plants. National parks and sanctuaries are a source of tourism. They are a source of beauty and happiness to many people.

    • Ethical Importance:

      All species have the right to exist. Humans should not cause their own destruction voluntarily. Biodiversity preserves diverse cultures and spiritual values. Therefore, it is very important to conserve biodiversity.

    Biodiversity is important to humans for many reasons. Biodiversity is also considered by many to be important — that is, each species has a value and a right to exist, whether known to humans or not. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO; Morton & Hill 2014) biodiversity textbook describes 5 basic values ​​(and interactions) that humans place on biodiversity:

    Economic biodiversity provides people with resources to use and produce. Many livelihoods, such as farmers, fishermen, and timber laborers, depend on biodiversity.

    Biodiversity support — biodiversity provides an active environment that provides oxygen, fresh air and water, plant pollination, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem resources.

    Recreation — much of which is based on a variety of natural phenomena, such as bird watching, mountaineering, camping, and fishing. Our tourism industry also depends on biodiversity.

    Culture — Australian culture is closely linked with biodiversity through identity, spirituality, and appreciation of beauty. Indigenous Australians have a strong connection with biodiversity bonds derived from spiritual beliefs about animals and plants.

    Science — biodiversity represents a wealth of systematic information that helps us to understand nature and its origins.

    Any loss or deterioration of biodiversity may affect all of the above principles and affect human well-being. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 was the first global effort to explore the link between human health and biodiversity. The study found benefits to communities ranging from biodiversity to material well-being, social security, local economic sustainability, inter-group relationships, and human health. It also emphasized the term ‘ecosystem resources’ under 4 broad categories (Morton & Hill 2014):

    supplies – supply of food, fiber, and water

    regulatory resources — climate control and disease control

    supportive resources — cycling nutrients and plant maturation

    cultural services — such as spiritual and recreational benefits.

    Also read: Concept of Species


    Biodiversity conservation is essential for the disposal of natural waste, soil composition, biological nitrogen fixation, plant and animal genetics, biological pest control, plant maturity, and pesticides. Plants and germs help to destroy chemical and biological pollutants and circulate nutrients through the ecosystem. For example:

    Pollinators, which include bees and butterflies, provide significant environmental and economic benefits to the agricultural and ecosystem, including adding diversity and production to food crops. One-third of the world’s food production is directly or indirectly dependent on the income of the insects. About 130 clothing plants in the United States have been pollinated by insects.

    Habitat segregation and losses adversely affect pollinator food sources, breeding grounds, and breeding grounds, resulting in a dramatic decline in the number of wild pollinators.

    There are 6 million tons of food products harvested annually from terrestrial wild biota in the United States including animals large and small, maple syrup, nuts, green berries, and algae. 6 billion tons of food is estimated at $ 57 million and adds $ 3 billion to the national economy (1995 figures).

    About 75% (by weight) of the 100,000 chemicals released into the environment can be damaged by biological organisms and are potential targets for both bioremediation and biotreatment. Savings obtained through bioremediation instead of alternatives available; physical, chemical, and thermal; to address global chemical pollution provides an annual turnover of $ 135 billion (1997 figures). The preservation of biodiversity in soil and water is essential for further development and improvement of bioremediation and biotreatment.

    Biodiversity is essential to the sustainable functioning of the agricultural, forestry, and ecosystems on which humans depend, but human activities, especially ecological development, cause an extinction rate of 1,000 to 10,000 times more than the natural level.

    The authors estimate that in the United States, biodiversity provides a total of $ 319 billion in annual profits and $ 2,928 billion in annual profits worldwide (1997 figures).

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