TopicsGeneral TopicsYamuna River – Jumna, Jamuna

Yamuna River – Jumna, Jamuna

Yamuna River: India’s river system is a complex network of various small and large rivers. The main rivers that form this system are the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Krishna, Narmada, Tapi, and Mahanadi, along with their many tributaries. Among these, the Yamuna River stands out as a significant tributary of the Ganga.

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    The Yamuna River holds the distinction of being India’s longest river and one of the major contributors to the Ganges in terms of water flow. Its journey commences at the Yamunotri Glacier in Uttarakhand, situated at an elevation of around 4,500 meters on the southwest side of the Bandarpunch peaks in the Lower Himalayas.

    This river spans a total length of 1,376 kilometers and its drainage basin covers 366,223 square kilometers, making up about 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. The Yamuna eventually joins the Ganges at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad, a sacred confluence point where the Kumbh Mela, a significant Hindu celebration held every 12 years, takes place.

    Yamuna River

    Hindus revere the Yamuna River much like the Ganges, considering it the goddess Yamuna. She’s sometimes called Yami, as she’s the sister of Yama, the god of death, and the daughter of Surya, the sun god.

    According to Hindu beliefs, taking a dip in the sacred waters of the Yamuna can free a person from the fear of death. For essential information about the Yamuna River, please refer to the table below:

    Yamuna River
    Particulars Details
    Flow in States Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi
    Important Cities on its Bank Haryana: Yamuna Nagar, Delhi: New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh: Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Auraiya, and Pryagraj
    Originates from Yamunotri, Banderpooch peaks, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand, India
    Total Length 1,376 km (855 mi)
    Discharge in Ganga at Pryagraj, Uttar Pradesh
    Tributaries Left Bank: Hindon, Tons, Hanuman Ganga, Sasur Khaderi

    Right Bank: Giri, Baghain, Sabi, Chambal, Betwa, Sindh, Ken

    Yamuna River Origin and Features

    The Yamuna River originates from the Yamunotri Glacier, situated in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand, just north of Haridwar. This glacier is perched at an elevation of 6,387 meters (20,955 feet) on the southwest slopes of the Banderpooch peaks, part of the Mussoorie range in the Lower Himalayas.

    The Yamunotri Temple, dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest Hindu sites and a significant stop on the Chota Char Dham Yatra pilgrimage. Nearby, you can find Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana. The 13-kilometer (8-mile) hiking trail runs alongside the river’s right bank.

    As the Yamuna River meanders through various states, including Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Delhi, it encounters several tributaries, notably the Tons, Chambal (its longest tributary with a substantial basin), Sindh, Betwa, and Ken.

    After leaving Uttarakhand, the river enters Himachal Pradesh, continues along the Haryana-Uttar Pradesh border, and eventually merges with the Ganges at Sangam or Prayag in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. The region between the Yamuna and the Ganges, within the Indo-Gangetic plain, contributes to the fertile alluvial Ganges-Yamuna Doab region.

    Yamuna River Catchment Area

    The Yamuna River marks the boundary between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as well as between Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh. When the Yamuna and Ganges rivers come together in the Indo-Gangetic plain, they create a region called the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, where they flow close to each other.

    This region, spanning 69,000 square kilometers and constituting one-third of the fertile plain, is famous for its agricultural productivity, particularly for growing high-quality basmati rice. The agriculture in this plain provides essential sustenance.

    The Yamuna River flows through Delhi, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, eventually merging with the Ganges at the sacred Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Pilgrims are transported by boats to prayer platforms in the river’s center. During the Kumbh Mela, which occurs every 12 years, countless people gather to immerse themselves in these holy waters.

    The river passes by several cities, including Allahabad, Baghpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Kalpi, and Hamirpur. In Etawah, it meets the Chambal River and later joins other significant tributaries like Sindh, Betwa, and Ken.

    Catchment Area of Yamuna River

    Extent of Yamuna River Catchment Area Catchment Area (km2) Catchment Area in Percentage
    Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand 74,208 21.5
    Himachal Pradesh 5,799 1.6
    Haryana 21,265 6.5
    Rajasthan 102,883 29.8
    Madhya Pradesh 140,230 40.6
    Delhi 1,485 0.4

    Yamuna River Tributaries

    The Yamuna River, stretching 1,376 kilometers, collects water from a vast 69,000 square kilometer catchment area, which includes contributions from various tributaries. Let’s explore some key tributaries:

    Tons River

    The Tons River, originating from the towering Bandarpoonch mountain at 6,315 meters, serves as the most significant tributary of the Yamuna. It flows through Himachal Pradesh and joins the Yamuna near Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

    Hindon River

    The Hindon River emerges from the Upper Shivalik region in the Lesser Himalayan Range, starting in Saharanpur District. It meanders for 400 kilometers through multiple districts in Uttar Pradesh, eventually merging with the Yamuna outside Delhi. This river relies on rainfall and has a catchment area of 7,083 square kilometers.

    Sabi River

    The Sabi River is a substantial Yamuna tributary, flowing into Delhi just before the Signature Bridge and continuing towards the Wazirabad Barrage. This rain-fed river has its sources in the Aravali range and traverses approximately 300 kilometers, nurturing various wetlands that support diverse wildlife.

    Sindh River

    Originating in the Vidisha district on the Malwa Plateau, the Sindh River courses through multiple districts in Madhya Pradesh before merging with the Yamuna in the Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh.

    Ken River

    The Ken River journeys through the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, covering 427 kilometers before merging with the Yamuna near Chilla village. Its drainage basin spans 28,058 square kilometers.

    Betwa River

    Flowing from the Vindhya mountains, the Betwa River winds through Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh before meeting the Yamuna in Hamirpur district. Notably, it lends its name to one of the Indian Navy’s frigates, INS BETWA.

    Chambal River

    The Chambal River is the longest tributary of the Yamuna, traveling 960 kilometers from its source near Mhow. It supports hydro-power generation and joins the Yamuna south of Sohan Goan in the Etawah district. The river’s drainage basin covers a vast area of 143,219 square kilometers.

    Dhasan River

    The Dhasan River, a right bank tributary of the Betwa River, finds its source in the Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh. It serves as the southern boundary of Lalitpur District in Uttar Pradesh and flows for a total length of 365 kilometers.

    Giri River

    The Giri River plays a crucial role as a Yamuna River tributary, primarily supplying water to southern Himachal Pradesh. Originating from the Kupar peak in the Shimla Hills, it travels in a southeasterly direction, dividing the Sirmaur district before merging with the Yamuna upstream of Paonta.

    Yamuna River FAQs

    What is the significance of the Yamuna River in India's river system?

    The Yamuna River is a major tributary of the Ganges and is India's longest river. It significantly contributes to the water flow of the Ganges, making it a vital component of India's river system.

    Where does the Yamuna River originate?

    The Yamuna River originates from the Yamunotri Glacier in Uttarakhand, located at an elevation of approximately 4,500 meters in the Lower Himalayas.

    What is the total length of the Yamuna River?

    The Yamuna River spans a length of 1,376 kilometers (855 miles) as it flows through several states in northern India.

    What is the catchment area of the Yamuna River?

    The Yamuna River's catchment area covers 366,223 square kilometers, accounting for about 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin.

    What is the religious significance of the Yamuna River in Hinduism?

    Hindus revere the Yamuna River much like the Ganges, considering it the goddess Yamuna. Taking a dip in its sacred waters is believed to free a person from the fear of death.

    In which state Yamuna river is located?

    The Yamuna River is located in the northern Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

    Which river is called daughter of sun?

    The Yamuna River is often called the daughter of the sun.

    What is the Yamuna River famous for?

    The Yamuna River is famous for its cultural and historical significance in India and as a major tributary of the Ganges River.

    Where does Yamuna River start and end?

    The Yamuna River starts in the Yamunotri Glacier in Uttarakhand and ends when it meets the Ganges River at Prayagraj (Allahabad).

    What is the old name of Yamuna River?

    The old name of the Yamuna River is Yamunā in Sanskrit.

    How much Yamuna is deep?

    The depth of the Yamuna River varies along its course, but it can be quite deep in some places, with depths ranging from several meters to over 20 meters in certain stretches.

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