Basic Physics Formulas & Notes for Competitive Exams

# Basic Physics Formulas & Notes for Competitive Exams

Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue or how gravity functions? Physics is the field of study that explores the interactions of the fundamental elements of our universe. It plays a crucial role in the syllabus of various competitive exams for engineering and technical programs.

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Physics encompasses a wide array of sub-disciplines, including quantum physics and nuclear physics. In this blog, we aim to present you with a complete list of essential physics formulas that will help you excel in your chosen competitive exam.

## Basic Physics Formulas

To truly grasp physics, it’s crucial to express real values instead of just memorizing them. When we engage with practical applications, we encounter a range of concepts, problems, and mathematical equations. Solving these requires us to apply our skills, creativity, and the right kind of potential. In essence, understanding physics goes beyond rote memorization; it involves actively using our abilities and imagination to find solutions.

## List of Basic Physics Formulas

Here are a few essential physics formulas to help you prepare for competitive exams.

 List of Basic Physics Formulas Formula Description Formula Average Speed Calculate the average speed of a moving object when you know the distance and time. S = d/t Acceleration Measure how quickly an object’s velocity changes over time. a = (v – u)/t Density Determine the denseness of a material in a given area. P = m/V Power Find the energy used to perform work over a specific time period. P = W/t Newton’s Second Law Expresses force as the product of mass and acceleration of an object. F = ma Weight Calculate the force of gravity acting on an object with mass ‘m’. W = mg Pressure Measure the amount of force applied per unit area. P = F/A Ohm’s Law Relate current (‘I’), voltage (‘V’), and resistance (‘R’) in electrical circuits. V = I × R Kinetic Energy Calculate the energy possessed by a moving object. E = 1/2 mv² Frequency Measure the number of cycles or revolutions completed per second. F = v/λ Pendulum Calculate the time it takes for a pendulum to swing back and forth. T = 2π√(L/g) Fahrenheit Conversion Convert temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit. F = (9/5 × °C) + 32 Work Find the work done by multiplying force, displacement, and the cosine of the angle. W = F × d × cosθ Torque Measure the rotational force or turning effect. T = F × r × sinθ Displacement Calculate the change in an object’s position from initial to final position. D = Xf – Xi = ΔX Mass-Force Relationship Relate force (‘F’), mass (‘m’), and acceleration (‘a’) in Newton’s second law. F = ma or m = F/a

## Basic Physics Notes

To succeed in competitive exams, it’s crucial to understand the syllabus and exam format. With so many applicants, getting a high score requires mastering all the details. Many candidates cover the main concepts, but what sets you apart is knowing the smaller, finer points.

While it’s essential to solidify your grasp of basic Physics formulas, don’t forget to review the fundamental principles in this subject. To assist you in strengthening your grasp of various Physics concepts, we’ve provided explanations for some frequently asked topics in this field.

### SI Units

Many engineering exams often include questions about SI units. It’s important to keep in mind these key points about SI units and how they relate to basic physics formulas. While SI units may seem less emphasized, they play a crucial role in various exam questions. Here are some important SI units to remember and use with your basic physics formulas.

 SI Units Name of the Quantity SI Unit Name of the Unit Mass Kilogram Kg Time Second s Length Metre m Thermodynamic/ Temperature Kelvin K Electric Current Ampere A Luminous Candela Cd Amount of Substance Mole Mole Electric Resistance Ohm Ω Power Watt W Wavelength of Light Angstrom Å Magnetic Induction Gauss Gs Electric Charge Coulomb C Atmospheric Pressure Bar bar Energy Joule J Magnetic Flux Maxwell Mx Pressure Pascal Pa Force Newton N

### Important Instruments and Devices

Many people are familiar with the common tools and gadgets used in physics experiments. These devices can be included in different questions to assess a student’s grasp of fundamental physics principles and equations. Below, we’ve listed these tools and devices along with simple explanations.

 Important Instruments and Devices Instrument Function Speedometer Measures and displays vehicle speed Accelerometer Measures acceleration Dynamometer Measures torque, force, and power Anemometer Measures wind speed Galvanometer Detects and indicates electric current Barometer Calculates atmospheric pressure (used in meteorology) Viscometer Determines fluid viscosity Seismometer Measures earth’s movements due to earthquakes or volcanic eruptions Voltmeter Measures electrical potential difference between two points

## Physics Formulas Practice Questions

1. A door with a width of 40 cm is pushed open with a force of 2 N applied at its edge. Calculate the torque produced by this force, causing the door to open.
2. A pendulum with a length of 4 meters completes one full cycle in 0.25 seconds. Determine the time period of its oscillation, and find the displacement of the pendulum bob after 0.6 seconds.
3. A pendulum on Earth has a period of 1.90 seconds. Calculate the period of the same pendulum on Mars, where the acceleration due to gravity is approximately 0.37 times that of Earth.
4. A person is pushing a lawnmower with a force of 900 N at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal plane. If the person pushes the mower for a distance of 30 meters, calculate the work done by the person to move the lawnmower.
5. A wave has a frequency of 50 Hz and a wavelength of 10 meters. Determine the speed of the wave.
6. Geeta travels 350 kilometers north and then turns back to the south, covering a distance of 125 kilometers. Calculate Geeta’s total displacement using the displacement formula.
7. A box weighing 250 N is at rest on the floor, exerting a pressure of 25,000 Pa. Determine the area over which the box is in contact with the floor.
8. An object with a mass of 1 kg experiences a force of 2 Newtons. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the object’s acceleration.
9. A person has a mass of 70 kg, and the gravitational acceleration on Earth is 9.8 m/s². Find out the weight of this person.
10. Calculate the gravitational force acting on two objects with masses of 15 g and 15 kg when they are positioned 11 meters apart.

## FAQs on Basics Physics Formulas

### What is the purpose of basic physics formulas in competitive exams?

Basic physics formulas are essential for solving problems in competitive exams related to engineering and technical programs. They provide a structured way to calculate physical quantities and help candidates demonstrate their understanding of fundamental physics concepts.

### Why is it important to understand the underlying principles?

Understanding the underlying principles of physics allows candidates to apply the formulas effectively to various situations. It also helps them grasp the finer points of physics, which can be crucial in competitive exams that may test comprehensive knowledge.

### What are SI units, and why are they important in physics formulas?

SI (International System of Units) units are standardized units of measurement used in physics and engineering. They provide a consistent and globally accepted way to express physical quantities. Knowing SI units is crucial because they ensure clarity and accuracy when using physics formulas.

### What are some common instruments and devices used in physics experiments?

Common instruments and devices in physics experiments include speedometers, accelerometers, dynamometers, anemometers, galvanometers, barometers, viscometers, seismometers, and voltmeters. These tools serve various purposes in measuring physical phenomena.

### How can I calculate torque, and why is it important?

Torque is calculated by multiplying the applied force by the perpendicular distance from the point of rotation. It's essential because it quantifies the rotational force or turning effect on an object, which is important in various mechanical applications.

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