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**Vector Operations:** There are two sorts of quantities in physics: **vectors** and scalars. Scalars are quantities with the magnitude associated with them, whereas vectors have both direction and magnitude. Simple algebraic principles can be used to deal with scalar values, but this is not the case with vector quantities, which cannot be dealt with in the same way. As a result, it’s critical to understand what kinds of operations may be done on these numbers and how many of them there are. Let’s take a closer look at a few of these procedures.

## Vector

A vector is a quantity with both magnitude and direction but not the location in mathematics. Velocity and acceleration are two examples of such numbers. Vector analysis was invented separately by Josiah Willard Gibbs and Oliver Heaviside (of the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively) late in the nineteenth century to explain the new principles of electromagnetic discovered by Scottish scientist James Clerk Maxwell. Since then, vectors have been indispensable in physics, mechanics, electrical engineering, and other fields for quantitatively describing forces.

Vectors can be represented as directed line segments with lengths equal to their magnitudes. Because of the magnitude and direction of a vector matter, any directed segment may be substituted by one with the same length and direction but starts at a different location, such as the coordinate system’s origin. A boldface letter, such as v, is frequently used to signify a vector. A vector’s magnitude, or length, is represented by |v|, or v, which stands for a scalar, which is a one-dimensional quantity (such as an ordinary integer). Multiplicating a vector by a scalar alters the length but not the direction, except that multiplying by a negative value reverses the vector’s arrow direction.

It is possible to add or remove two vectors. To graphically add or remove vectors v and w, move each to the origin and complete the parallelogram produced by the two vectors; v + w is one diagonal vector of the parallelogram, and v w is the other diagonal vector.

Multiplying two vectors may be done in two ways: the cross, or vector, product results in another vector denoted by v × w. The cross-product magnitude is given by |v × w| = VW sin θ, where θ is the smaller angle between the vectors (with their “tails” placed together). The direction of v × w is perpendicular to both v and w; The right-hand rule may be used to visualize its direction, as illustrated in the picture. The cross product is commonly used to get a “normal” (a line perpendicular) to a surface at some point, and it is also used to calculate torque and magnetic force on a moving charged particle.

## Vector Mathematical Operations

Because vectors contain directions, they must be treated in a manner that takes their directions into account. For example, the basic laws of algebra do not apply in general to vectors – in most circumstances, just adding the magnitudes of the two vectors would result in an incorrect answer. The following is a list of some of the most commonly performed operations on vectors in the subject of physics:

1. Addition/Subtraction of two vectors.

2. Vector multiplication with scalars.

3. Product of two vectors:

**Addition of Vectors**

Using standard algebraic rules, vectors cannot be added. When adding two vectors, the magnitude and direction of the two vectors must be considered. The graphic below depicts two vectors, “a” and “b”, and the resultant calculated after they are added. The resulting vector, known as the commutative property, is independent of the order in which the two vectors are joined.

**The triangle Law of Vector Addition**

Take a look at the vectors in the diagram above. The line PQ represents the vector “p “, while the line QR represents the vector “q”. The QR line shows the resulting vector. AC travels in a clockwise path from A to C.

**Scalar Multiplication of Vectors**

When a vector is multiplied by a constant scalar k, a vector with the same direction but a factor of k different magnitude is produced. In the illustration, the vector is displayed after and before it is multiplied by the constant k.

**Vectors’ Product**

Vectors can be multiplied by each other but not split. When it comes to multiplication, there are two forms of multiplication: scalar and vector. Scalar multiplication (also known as dot product) is a kind of multiplication in which a result is a scalar number. Vector multiplication (also known as cross multiplication) is a form of multiplication that creates a vector quantity. Vector products are used to define other derived vector values.

If the components of the vectors are known. a = a1i + a2j + a3k and b = b1i + b2j + b3k are two examples. The dot product is supplied in this example by,

**a.b = a1b1i + a2b2j + a3b3k**

The right-hand rule is used to identify the direction of the resulting vector from the cross-product. Unlike the addition and dot products, the vector product is not commutative in nature.

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**FAQs**

##### What does the equality of vectors appear to suggest?

When the magnitudes and directions of two vectors are the same, they are said to be equal. We're discussing two values of the same physical quantity here. Therefore, we can't know if two vectors are equal if they don't represent the same physical quantity. For example, the velocity vector of 5 m/s in the positive x-axis and the force vector of 5 N in the same positive x-axis is not comparable.

##### Is it true that vectors obey the sequence of operations?

Order of Vector Operations is a rule. We must use the following order of operations when computing an algebraic statement with 2D vectors: scalar multiplication, addition, and subtraction: Parentheses. Multiplication of scalars. Subtraction and addition.

##### In mathematics, what is a vector?

In mathematics, an image result vector is a quantity that possesses both magnitude and direction but not location. Velocity and acceleration are two examples of such numbers.

**Question: Name the different types of vectors.**

**Answer:** Types of Vectors List:-

- Zero Vector
- Unit Vector
- Position Vector
- Co-initial Vector
- Like and Unlike Vectors
- Co-planar Vector
- Collinear Vector
- Equal Vector

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