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- The study of the interior structure and organization of plants or plant organs is known as plant anatomy (plant parts).
- Plant anatomy is the study of diverse plant tissues, their kinds, and how they are organized to generate distinct plant organs. It aids our understanding of how higher plants work.
- Anatomy can sometimes be the key to resolving taxonomic puzzles.
- Anatomical studies are used in a variety of businesses to assure product quality.
- Within the Angiosperms, dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants have diverse anatomy.
- Plant anatomy aids in the identification of various plant species.
- Anatomy is influenced by the plant’s environment and growth conditions, as well as adaptive characteristics.
- It aids in the formation of plant group ties.
Anatomy of Flowering Plants
The anatomy of flowering plants refers to the study of their internal structure and organization. It involves examining various plant parts such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits, understanding their functions and how they contribute to the overall growth and reproduction of the plant.
Tissue is made up of cells that have the same structure and function.
Two types of plants tissue:
- Meristematic tissue is made up of cells that are constantly dividing.
- The apical meristem, which is located at the apex of the stem, produces primary tissues such as dermal, vascular, and ground tissues.
- In grasses, an intercalary meristem exists between mature tissues.
- Secondary tissue, such as cambium, is produced by the lateral meristem.
- Permanent tissue is made up of cells that stop dividing once they’ve developed their specialized form and function.
- Only one type of cell has the same shape and function in a simple tissue.
- Complex tissue is made up of many types of cells that operate together.
|-cells are mostly isodiametric
-thin cell wall made up of cellulose
|-photosynthesis, secretion, storage
|-closely packed cells with no intercellular spaces
-deposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin in the cell wall
-chloroplast containing cells assimilate food
|-elongated cells with thick lignified cell wall
-dead cells with no protoplasm
-present as fibers or sclereids
|-provide mechanical support
-present in the seed coat, pulp and walls of fruits
|-made up of tracheids, vessels, xylem fibers and xylem parenchyma
-vessels and tracheids are the main transporting material
-two types of primary xylem, protoxylem and metaxylem
-in stem endarch organization with protoxylem at the center
-in roots exarch organization
|-conducts water from roots to stem and leaves
|-in angiosperms, phloem is made up of companion cells, sieve
-tube elements, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibers
-in gymnosperm instead of sieve tube and companion cells, albuminous and sieve cells are present
-phloem parenchyma is absent in monocotyledons
Tissue System in Anatomy of Flowering Plants
The tissue system in the anatomy of flowering plants refers to the organization and arrangement of different types of tissues within the plant body. It includes three main types of tissues: dermal, ground, and vascular tissues. Dermal tissue covers and protects the plant, ground tissue provides support and storage, and vascular tissue transports water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.
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Epidermal tissue system
- The outer layer of plants includes components like the epidermis, cuticle, stomata, and epidermal extensions. In addition, you can find trichomes in the stems and root hairs.
- Stomata are tiny openings in the plant’s surface that help control the exchange of gases and the loss of water through a process called transpiration.
- In dicot plants, guard cells, which play a role in regulating stomata, typically have a bean-like shape and contain chloroplasts.
- On the other hand, in grasses, guard cells tend to have a dumbbell shape.
- Root hairs, which are responsible for absorbing water and nutrients from the soil, consist of single cells.
- Trichomes, which are hair-like structures found on the plant’s surface, are made up of multiple cells.
Tissue system in ground
- These tissues make up the main part of the plant between the outermost layer (epidermis) and the inner vascular tissues. Examples of such tissues include the cortex, pericycle, and pith.
- This type of tissue consists of simple structures.
- The mesophyll found in leaves is a type of ground tissue, and it contains chloroplasts. This tissue is responsible for photosynthesis, where plants convert sunlight into energy.
The Vascular tissue system
- This part of the plant is made up of complex tissues consisting of xylem and phloem.
- In dicots, there’s something called cambium located between the xylem and phloem within the vascular bundle.
- Cambium is responsible for producing secondary vascular tissues, which help the plant grow and develop.
- Dicots have an open vascular bundle arrangement, meaning there’s space and cambium between the xylem and phloem.
- In monocots, they have a closed type of vascular bundle, meaning there’s no cambium present in between.
- The roots of plants have a radial arrangement of vascular bundles, where xylem and phloem alternate positions.
- However, in the stem and leaves, the vascular bundles have a conjoint arrangement, meaning xylem and phloem are situated at the same radius. This setup is essential for efficient transport of water, nutrients, and food throughout the plant.
- The top layer of a dicot root is called the Epiblema, and it has tiny root hairs.
- Below that, there are several layers in the root. The innermost layer, the endodermis, has a waxy substance called suberin, which acts like a seal.
- After those layers, there’s the pericycle, which makes new roots and a tissue called vascular cambium.
- Dicot roots usually have two to six vascular bundles that are arranged in a circle.
- Monocot roots are in plants with one seed leaf. They look somewhat like dicot roots but have a different kind of vascular system.
- In a dicot plant’s stem, the very outside layer is called the epidermis. It has a protective coating called a cuticle, and it might have tiny hairs (trichomes) and small openings (stomata).
- Inside the stem, there are three main layers: one tough layer (the hypodermis), one softer layer in the middle (parenchymatous cortical layer), and another inner layer (the endodermis) that has starch granules.
- Below that, there’s the pericycle and some rays. They help make new roots.
- The vascular bundles in dicot stems form a circle and have a specific arrangement.
- Monocot stems are in plants with one seed leaf. They look different from dicot stems. The outer layer is tough (sclerenchymatous hypodermis).
- The vascular bundles are scattered all around the stem and are tightly packed.
- Dicot leaves have a top side (dorsal) and a bottom side (ventral), making them different on each side.
- The veins in these leaves create a net-like pattern.
- Both the upper and lower sides of the leaf have a protective layer (the epidermis), with more small openings (stomata) usually on the lower side.
- Inside the leaf, there are cells that do photosynthesis: long ones (palisade) and round or oval ones (spongy parenchyma).
- The veins in the leaf have some special cells around them.
- Monocot leaves look the same on both sides.
- Their veins run side by side, not in a net pattern.
- Small openings (stomata) are evenly spread on both sides of the leaf.
- Inside the leaf, there’s only one layer of cells for photosynthesis.
- In some grasses, there are big cells that help save water.
- The veins in these leaves are a bit different too.
FAQs Frequently Ask Questions for Anatomy of Flowering Plants
What is the anatomy of plants?
Plant anatomy is like looking inside a plant to see its parts and how they work. It helps us understand how plants grow and stay alive.
What are the important topics in anatomy of flowering plants?
We learn about roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and how plants get bigger in topics like plant anatomy.
Who is the father of anatomy of flowering plants?
Long ago, a person named Nehemiah Grew started studying plant parts closely and is often called the first plant anatomy expert.
What is the anatomy of a flower (short note)?
Flower anatomy means studying the inside of a flower, like its male and female parts. These parts help flowers make new plants.
What is the anatomy of flowering plants' secondary growth?
Secondary growth in plants means they get wider or thicker over time. It happens in the stem and root and makes plants stronger.
What is flower anatomy called?
When we study the inside of a flower, we call it flower anatomy.
What are the 5 basic plant anatomy parts?
Plants have five main parts: roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. These parts help them grow and make seeds.
Why is it important to learn the anatomy of blooming plants?
Learning about plant anatomy is important because it helps us understand how plants live, helps in gardening and farming, and is useful for science and nature protection.