Over the millennials, countless species of living things have sprung up from the earth, and much effort has been made since ancient times. The life that surrounds us is ranging from tiny ants to huge trees, colourless insects, and colourful flowers or birds. To facilitate study and identification, the concept of biological classification was developed but in terms of functional categories, a basic basis for classification became necessary.
Initially, our environment was divided into biological and inanimate objects, and later, as biodiversity began to grow, there was a need for biodiversity. The classification of living organisms based on similarities and differences is known as biological classification. Each of the biologists who specialize in biology has done so by dividing them into different groups according to different conditions. It has taken years for researchers to determine the basic features of the classification process.
The Beginning of the Foundation:
The history of the extinction of living things began with Aristotle, a Greek philosopher. He divided the animals on the basis of their environment, namely, air, water, and land, but that separation was not justified. The animals in each group were very different, except for their habitat. Fish and tortoises could not be grouped together. Therefore, accommodation cannot be a condition of its separation.
Scientists in recent years began working to classify living things on the basis of their own characteristics, which can be interpreted in many ways. Symptoms The appearance and behavior of living things. For example, a dog has limbs but a snake does not have it, a dog and a snake can move and a plant cannot. These are just some of the characteristics of living things.
Every division begins somewhere. The basic element will form the basis for a wide range of divisions, that is, large groups between living organisms. Features at the next level are determined by small groups based on the foundation. Thus, a series of command commands are formed.
Some of the features currently used to distinguish living organisms are:
- Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic Cell.
- Unicellular or Multicellular.
- Autotrophs (Photosynthetic) or Heterotrophs (Non-photosynthetic).
- Level of body composition and growth.
How to organize a variety of categories, groups, and other categories into consecutive levels of biological division in a series that increases or decreases from animal diversity to the state or vice versa known as the Taxonomic hierarchy. Each of these categories is known as the taxonomic category or standard. In the system of division, the State remains at a high level and is followed by divisions, class, order, family, race, and minority ranks in the Empire on a regular basis. The stages of the Taxonomic Hierarchy were first introduced by Linnaeus, hence it is also called the Linnaean hierarchy.
This concept can best be understood by example: birds are a group of living things that display common features such as feathers and flight. Therefore, based on common factors, they are divided into single taxonomic categories.
The earth is considered to be home to more than 8 million species. To truly appreciate this number, we must also keep in mind that the number is constantly growing as there are still species to be found, especially in the tropics. With so many numbers, it is necessary to divide them into groups lest the number of different species will be too difficult to learn. Thus, experts in taxonomy biology have developed a carefully designed strategy for grouping these countless species into groups. It was not until the mid-1700’s that the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus distinguished living things with similar characteristics. He relied on the so-called binomial nomenclature of biological classification.
Also read: Study of Taxonomy
TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY IN BIOLOGY :
The following are the important taxonomic categories in which living organisms are classified:
The state is a very high level of segregation, divided into small groups at various levels. There are 5 kingdoms in which living things are divided, namely, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera.
This is the next level of division and is much clearer than the state. There are 35 phyla in the kingdom of Animalia. Example – Porfera, Chordata, Arthropoda, etc.
The class was the most common level in taxonomic hierarchy until phyla was not introduced. Kingdom Animalia includes 108 classes including class mammals, reptiles, aves, etc. However, the classrooms used today are quite different from those proposed by Linnaeus and are rarely used.
It is a very specific level than the class. It forms one or more of the same family. There are approximately 26 orders in the class of mammals such as pets, carnivores, etc.
This category of taxonomic sequences includes a variety of variants that share a few similarities. For example, families through the Carnivora program include Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, etc.
A group of similar species forms a genus. Some generations have only one species and which are known as the monotypic, while others have more than one species and are known as polytypic. Such as a lion and a leopard are listed under the Panthera genus.
Very low level of taxonomic hierarchy. There are some 8.7 million species of living things on earth. Refers to a group of similar organisms by shape, form, reproductive characteristics. Species can be subdivided into smaller species