Study MaterialsImportant QuestionsPolitical Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 9 Globalisation

Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 9 Globalisation

 

Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 9 Globalisation

1 Mark Questions

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    Question 1.
    Mention the main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). (Delhi 2013)
    Answer:
    The main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is setting the rules for the promotion of international trade.

    Question 2.
    How far is it correct to say that globalisation results in the erosion of state sovereignty? (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    The globalisation affects the state sovereignty to some extent because the State Government have to follow the international decisions on various global issues.

    Question 3.
    How far is it correct to say that globalisation actually increases the activities of the state? (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    Globalisation has actually increased the activities of the state in political, economic and cultural fields.

    Question 4.
    What is globalisation? (All India 2008)
    Answer:
    Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    2 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Mention any two benefits of globalisation, (All India 2015)
    Answer:
    Two benefits of globalisation are:

    • It provides job opportunities for the youth.
    • It provides the exchange of ideas, capital, commodities and people from one place to another.

    Question 2.
    Mention any two political consequences of globalisation. (Delhi 2012)
    OR
    What are the political consequences of there globalisation. (Delhi 2012)
    Answer:
    Following are the consequences of political globalisation

    • It has eroded the capacity of the state by reducing the ability of government to do what they want to do.
    • The concept of welfare state has been reduced to a more minimalist state all over the world.

    Question 3.
    How has technological advancement affected globalisation? (Delhi 2012)
    OR
    How have technological advancement and recognition of inter-connectedness affected globalisation? All India 2008
    Answer:
    Technology remains an important factor with regard to globalisation. The technological inventions such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors. Hence, invention of printing laid basis for the creation of nationalism. Thus, technological advancement and regonition of inter-connectedness affected globalisation.

    Question 4.
    What is cultural homogenisation? Give an example to show that its consequence is not negative. (All India 2012)
    Answer:
    Globalisation which led to rise of a uniform culture known as cultural homogenisation. It is intermingling of one culture with another one.

    The consequenes are not always negative as jeans can even go well with khadi kurta. Now-a-days, Americans also wear jeans and kurta.

    Question 5.
    Does globalisation lead to cultural homogenisation or cultural heterogenisation or both? Justify. (HOTS; Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    Globalisation has affected our domestic life, food, drink, dress and ideas. It has even affected people’s preferences leading to the fear to threatening world culture. This fear is true upto some extent as globalisation has led to rise of a uniform culture known as cultural homogenisation.

    On the other hand, cultural homogenisation has contrary effects too. It makes to each culture more distinctive and unique. This process is called cultural heterogenisation.

    Question 6.
    What are the economic consequences of globalisation? (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    Following are the economic consequences of globalisation:

    1. It deals with increasing the trade in commodities all around the world. The restrictions imposed by various states on each other’s imports have been removed.
    2. Globalisation benefits some sections of society while other sections of society are left deprived. Developed countries gain more as compared to developing countries.

    Question 7.
    Define cultural heterogenisation. (Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    When globalisation leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. It is called cultural heterogenisation.

    Question 8.
    Mention any one problem created by protectionism. (Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    Protectionism is practiced by states to protect the economic and business interest of domestic industries, companies, traders etc.

    In long-term, protectionism weaken the industry as without competition there will be no innovation, efficiency which may result in lower quality and expensive production. This way domestic product can not compete with foreign product.

    Question 9.
    What is meant by flows in relation to globalisation? (Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    Flows in relation to globalisation refer to movement of ideas, capital, commodity and people from one part to another parts of world, which causes the process of globalisation to exist.

    Question 10.
    What is meant by social safety nets? (Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    Social safety nets refer to welfare measures implemented by states to provide social security to poor and weaker section of society who is at the receiving end of economic development.

    4 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Explain any four economic consequences of globalisation. (All India 2017)
    OR
    Mention any four political consequences of globalisation. (Delhi 2014)
    OR
    Explain any two economic consequences of globalisation. (Delhi 2014)
    OR
    Explain any four consequences of globalisation. (Delhi 2013)
    OR
    What is meant by globalisation? Explain any three cultural consequences of globalisation. (Delhi 2011)
    OR
    Describe any two cultural consequences of globalisation. (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    Political consequences The political consequences can be understood through following points ;

    • It decreases the role of state. It leads to market state rather than welfare state.
    • It leads to the emergence of IMF, World Bank and WTO etc.
    • Market factors influences the decision-making process of the governments.
    • It has affected the traditional concept of state sovereignty.

    Economic consequences The economic consequences can be understood through following points :

    • It focuses on the development of some elite groups of the society.
    • Economic globalisation enhances the disparities among the different classes of the society.
    • It also increases the role of WTO, World Bank and IMF.
    • Economic globalisation leads to consumerism which enhances the market’s role in society.

    Cultural consequences The cultural consequences can be understood through following points :

    • It leads to cultural dominance that is the dominance of Western culture.
    • It also leads towards the unification of the culture that is cultural homogenisation.
    • Due to cultural homogenisation, cultural globalisation leads towards cultural heterogenisation.
    • It also leads to cultural colonialism.

    Question 2.
    Explain any two positive and any two negative effects of globalisation. (All India 2014)
    Answer:
    Positive Impacts of globalisation are (any two):

    • Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
    • It attracts private foreign capital investment.
    • It creates new job opportunities.
    • It raises standard of living.
    • It increases production, efficiency and healthy competition.
    • It attracts foreign direct investment also.

    Negative impacts of globalisation are (any two) :

    • Ths foreign companies focus on their profit orientation projects only in place of social welfare.
    • It has widened income disparities by making the rich richer and the poor more poorer.
    • Globalisation is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauna in country.

    Question 3.
    What is globalisation? Highlight any three causes of globalisation, (All India 2014)
    OR
    Explain any four factors responsible for the development of globalisation. (All India 2013)
    OR
    Define globalisation. Explain any three causes of globalisation. (Delhi 2012)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    The factors responsible for globalisation are :

    1. Globalisation is not caused by a single factor. Now-a-days technology is the most important element. The invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence, invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. The technology affects both our personal and collective lives.
    2. The technology has made it easier to exchange ideas, capital, commodities and people from one place to another. The transfer of capital and commodities is likely to be wider and quicker, than the transfer of people across different parts of the world.
    3. It is not just the availability of improved communication which led to the emergence of globalisation, rather the role of people in different parts of the world is also significant who recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world.
    4. The events taking place in one part of world have an influence, on the other part of the world.
      Here, we can take an example of bird flu or tsunami, which is not confined to only one nation. It has affected the world as whole. Similarly, any major economic event would have an immediate impact on the local, national or regional environment at the world level.

    Question 4.
    How has technology contributed to globalisation? Explain. (Delhi 2013; All India 2009)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    Technology has contributed to globalisation in the following ways:

    1. The technological invention such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. Thus, technology influences the way we think of our personal and collective lives.
    2. The sharing of ideas, capital, commodities and people throughout the globe has been made possible only by technological advancement.
    3. The transfer of capital goods and services is likely to be wider and quicker than the transfer of people across the various parts of the world.
    4. Technological advances has reduced the physical distances and increased inter connectedness world widely.

    Question 5.
    Explain any four reasons due to which globalisation is resisted. (Delhi 2013)
    OR
    What is meant by globalisation? List any two forms of resistance to globalisation. (Delhi 2010)
    Answer:
    For meaning of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    The four reasons due to which globalisation is resisted are :

    • Leftist parties argue that contemporary globalisation represents a global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
    • Weakening of the state leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interest of its poor.
    • Rightist parties expresse anxiety over the political economic and cultural effects.
    • The cultural globalisation would harm age old values of people while harming their traditional culture.

    Question 6.
    “Globalsation has shifted power from nation-states to global consumers.” Justify the statement. (HOTS; All India 2012)
    Answer:
    Globalisation has shifted power from nation-states to’global consumers because of the following points:

    • Revolution in information technology and electronic media and development in the field of science and technology.
    • Collapse of communism and the end of cold war with the disintegration of Soviet Union.
    • Advances in the field of transport and communication and growth of MNCs. These MNCs are the efforts of the developed nations to make the whole world as one single market.
    • Rising debts of developing states that have forced the IMF and World Bank to ask developing states to adopt the path of disinvestment and globalisation.

    Question 7.
    Define globalisation. How is it different from internationalisation? (All India 2011)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    It is different from internationalisation on the basis of following points :

    1. Internationalisation believes in the integrity of community whereas globalisation believes in one umbrella concepts and sharing of ideas between other states.
    2. Internationalisation believes in the use of resources of all the world equally for the benefit of mankind, but globalisation emphasise on the development of resources for the welfare and support of community.
    3. Internationalisation also believes in the universal brotherhood and international peace whereas globalisation believes in the concept of flows of ideas, people and commodities throughout the globe, it also encourages the richer countries to support the poorer countries’ economy.

    Question 8.
    Define globalisation. It is a multi dimensional concept? Justify. (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    Yes, it is multi-dimensional concept because it has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these are very different to each other. It is wrong to say that globalisation is purely economic concern and would be purely cultural phenomena. Globalisation has, affected the globe unevenly. It is important to avoid drawing general conclusions about the impact of globalisation.

    6 Marks Questions

    Question 1.
    Explain globalisation. How has technology contributed in promoting globalisation? (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    Question 2.
    Explain any three reasons for resistance to globalisation. (Delhi 2015)
    OR
    Explain the concept of globalisation and any two reasons for resistance to it. (All India 2013)
    Answer:
    For meaning of globalisation, Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    The four reasons due to which globalisation is resisted are :

    • Leftist parties argue that contemporary globalisation represents a global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
    • Weakening of the state leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interest of its poor.
    • Rightist parties expresse anxiety over the political economic and cultural effects.
    • The cultural globalisation would harm age old values of people while harming their traditional culture.

    Question 3.
    Explain the positive impacts of globalisation on the present day world. (Delhi 2015)
    OR
    What is meant by globalisation? Highlight any of its two good and two bad aspects. (Delhi to 2008)
    Answer:
    Positive Impacts of globalisation are (any two) :

    • Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
    • It attracts private foreign capital investment.
    • It creates new job opportunities.
    • It raises standard of living.
    • It increases production, efficiency and healthy competition.
    • It attracts foreign direct investment also.

    Negative impacts of globalisation are (any two) :

    • Ths foreign companies focus on their profit orientation projects only in place of social welfare.
    • It has widened income disparities by making the rich richer and the poor more poorer.
    • Globalisation is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauna in country.

    Question 4.
    Describe any three effects of globalisation on the culture of a country. (All India 2015)
    Answer:
    The effects of globalisation on the culture of a country are :

    1. Cultural globalisation affects our food, clothes and thinking. But some times external influence simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms, e.g. the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
    2. In the same way blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination that is unique. This clothing combination has been exported back to the country that gave us blue jeAnswer:
    3. The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves it imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
    4. This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
      So we can say that globalisation broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.

    Question 5.
    Describe any three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country. (All India 2015)
    Answer:
    Following are the three effects of globalisation on the economy of a country

    • Economic globalisation gives more importance to institutions like the IMF and the WTO.
    • It involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world.
    • As the restrictions imposed by different countries have been reduced, so, greater trade in commodities across the globe can be seen.
    • It has led to the flow of ideas across national boundaries through internet and computer.
    • Economic globalisation has also brought economic ruin for the weaker countries, especially for the poor within these countries.

    Question 6.
    Describe any three factors which are responsible for globalisation, (All India 2015)
    Answer:
    For definition of globalisation
    Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

    The factors responsible for globalisation are :

    1. Globalisation is not caused by a single factor. Now-a-days technology is the most important element. The invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence, invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. The technology affects both our personal and collective lives.
    2. The technology has made it easier to exchange ideas, capital, commodities and people from one place to another. The transfer of capital and commodities is likely to be wider and quicker, than the transfer of people across different parts of the world.
    3. It is not just the availability of improved communication which led to the emergence of globalisation, rather the role of people in different parts of the world is also significant who recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world.
    4. The events taking place in one part of world have an influence, on the other part of the world.

    Here, we can take an example of bird flu or tsunami, which is not confined to only one nation. It has affected the world as whole. Similarly, any major economic event would have an immediate impact on the local, national or regional environment at the world level.

    Question 7.
    Explain any three benefits of globalisation with examples. (Delhi 2014)
    Answer:
    The three benefits of globalisation are as follows:

    (i) Economic benefits

    • It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
    • It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
    • The restrictions on the imports and movement of capital have also been reduced.
    • This has spread internet and computer related services across national boundaries.

    (ii) Technological benefits Technological equipments as telephone , internet, telegraph and microchip have contributed to globalisation by exchanging ideas, capitals and people to make convenient to move from one place to another at a fast pace under the process of globalisation.

    (iii) Political Benefits

    • The primary status remains unchallenged basis of political community.
    • States have received a boost under globalisation to become more powerful and strong.

    Question 8.
    How has globalisation impacted India and how is India impacting globalisation? (All India to 2008)
    Answer:
    Globalisation affected India economically, socially and culturally. After adopting New Economic Policy in 1991, India has removed restrictions on imports of goods. It also encouraged the investors to invest in India. FDI to produce goods and services has increased, it also enhanced foreign exchange reserves.

    After adopting globalisation, USA and European culture spread in India. The food habit and dressing style is changing. Families are converting from joint to the nuclear. Eating burgers and pizzas and wearing jeans have brought dramatic change in our lives.

    In India, information technology and space technology have been enhanced after globalisation. India is also involved in trade and commerce with other nations. Even though at some places India plays a leadership role. However, in India, resistance to globalisation has come from various quarters.

    These are as follows:

    1. Trade unions of industrial workforce, as well as social movements and farmer agitation against monopoly MNCs, are also some forms of resistance to globalisation.
    2. The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has also generated widespread opposition in India.

    Passage-Based Questions

    Question 1.
    Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions: (Delhi 2016)
    At the most simple level, globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity that is, the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old ‘welfare sate’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenace of law and order and the security of its economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
    (i) What do the words ‘erosion of state capacity imply? Explain with the help of an example.
    (ii) Why is the concept of welfare state giving way to a minimalist state?
    (iii) How has market become the prime determinant of social priorities?
    Answer:
    (i) The word ‘erosion of state capacity’ refers to reduction, of role of state in society and economy. Today, state is not regulator of economy, it is determined by free market forces. State has started reducing subsidies on food, petrol fertilisers, etc gradually.
    (ii) The welfare state is giving way to minimalist state which performs certain core functions such as, the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens because of changing role of state under the forces of globalisation which has been reducing the role of state.
    (iii) The market has become the prime determinant of social priorities. Today, state is acting, making decision on the basis of market forces. It is the market which has been forcing the state and society what to do and what not to do. Our societal priorities are being influenced by market. It is market which determines what and how we have to eat, drink watch, dress etc.

    Question 2.
    Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions (All India 2016)
    Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be unchallenged basis of political community. The old jealousies and rivalries between countries have not ceased to matter in world politics. The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to. States continue to be important.

    Indeed, in some respects state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens.
    (i) What are the two most essential functions of the state?
    (ii) How do enhanced technologies enable the state to rule better?
    (iii) Justify with the help of an example that globalisation gives a boost to the state capacity.
    Answer:
    (i) The two most essential functions of the state is to defend and secure the boundaries of the state to maintain national security and to provide justice and maintain law and order.
    (ii) Enhanced technologies, enable the state to collect important information about its citizens which helps the state to keep surveillance on its people continuously.
    (iii) Globalisation has given boost to the state capacity because it has made available advance technology to state to rule its people better. Thus, globalisation has made state more powerful than before.

    We hope the Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 9 Globalisation help you. If you have any query regarding Political Science Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 9 Globalisation, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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