EnglishGrammarVerb Form List – V1, V2, and V3

Verb Form List – V1, V2, and V3

Verbs in English are used to represent the subject’s action within a sentence or context. There are five major verb forms in English. Let us examine each of them in detail.

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    What is a Verb form?

    Verbs play a crucial role in sentences. They assist us in understanding when an action occurred by demonstrating actions like jumping or running. However, did you know that verbs have different forms? The various ways a verb can appear in a sentence are what we mean when we discuss verb forms. In this article, we will examine the five primary forms of verbs.

    Root Verb with Examples

    The root verb is the verb in its original form, with no inflexions or changes. The verb’s root form serves as the foundation for the creation of the other forms. Remember that this is not true for all Verb. Only regular verbs have their root form changed when conjugated to represent other forms of the verb. Irregular Verbs are conjugated in unique ways, and not all remain the same.

    Examples of Root Verbs:

    • I really like watching movies with my friends. (Root verb – like)
    • I complete my homework before 6 p.m. every day. (Root verb – complete)
    • You’re really good at playing. (Root verb – play)
    • You look really pretty. (Root verb – look)

    Third Person Singular Present Form with Examples

    When we talk about someone doing something regularly in the present, we use the third person singular form of a verb. For most verbs, you just add an ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the end.

    For example:

    • Tom likes to eat cereal for breakfast.

    (Here, ‘likes’ shows that Tom enjoys eating cereal regularly.)

    • Sheela teaches English to sixth graders.

    (Here, ‘teaches’ tells us that Sheela teaches English regularly to her students.)

    • My dad reads the newspaper every day.

    (Here, ‘reads’ indicates that my dad reads the newspaper as part of his daily routine.)

    • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

    (Here, ‘rises’ and ‘sets’ show the regular movements of the sun.)

    So, when you’re talking about someone or something doing something regularly, look for that ‘s’ or ‘es’ at the end of the verb to indicate the third person singular present form.

    Present Participle Form of the Verb with Examples

    The verb’s present participle form is formed by adding a ‘ing’ to the base form or root verb. In some cases, when a monosyllabic word ends with a vowel followed by a consonant, the final consonant is doubled before the ‘ing’. In most cases, the ‘ing’ is added to verbs that end with a ‘e’ instead of the ‘e’. However, there are a few verbs that keep the ‘e’ in the base form when converted to the present participle form.

    For Example:

    • Words with double consonants
      • Run – Running
      • Swim – Swimming
      • Forget – Forgetting
      • Sit – Sitting
      • Cut – Cutting
    • Examples of regular verbs transformed into the present participle form
      • Cry – crying
      • Try – Trying
      • Read – Reading
      • Write – Writing (‘e’ is removed)
      • Age – Ageing (‘e’ is retained)

    Simple Past Form of the Verb with Examples

    The verb’s simple past tense is employed to indicate past tense actions. Typically, it is created by appending a “ed” or “d” (for words ending in “e”) to the root verb. There are some irregular verbs, though, that defy convention. Let’s examine a few instances of the verb in its simple past tense.

    Regular Verbs:

    • Cheat – I cheated in the game.
    • Dodge – He dodged the ball.
    • Jump – She jumped over the puddle.
    • Skip – They skipped school yesterday.
    • Iron – Mom ironed my shirt.

    Verbs That Stay the Same:

    Some verbs don’t change in the past. They look the same as the present:

    • Read – I read a book last night.
    • Cut – He cut the paper.
    • Put – She put the keys on the table.
    • Let – They let us in without tickets.
    • Hit – The ball hit the window.
    • Hurt – My knee hurt after the fall.

    Irregular Verbs:

    • These verbs are a bit different in the past. They don’t follow the normal rules:
    • Run – I ran five miles yesterday.
    • Sit – She sat on the bench.
    • Sing – We sang our favourite song.
    • Throw – He threw the ball far.
    • Fly – The bird flew away.
    • Bring – She brought snacks to the party.
    • Buy – He bought a new bike.
    • Think – I thought about it all night.
    • Ring – The phone rang loudly.
    • Find – We found a treasure.
    • Lose – I lost my keys.
    • Meet – They met at the café.

    So, whether it’s a regular verb or an irregular one, the simple past form helps us talk about what happened before now.

    Past Participle Form of the Verb with Examples

    The perfect tense of the verb is denoted by its past participle form. Regular verbs maintain their same form in both the simple past and past participle forms, while irregular verbs change in spelling when they become past participle. To gain a better understanding, let us examine a few examples.

    Examples of Past Participle Form:

    Root Verb Simple Past Past Participle
    Read Read Read
    Sit Sat Sat
    Think Thought Thought
    Throw Threw Threw
    Cut Cut Cut
    Buy Bought Bought
    Stand Stood Stood
    Pull Pulled Pulled
    Draw Drew Drew
    Tumble Tumbled Tumbled

    Verb Forms V1 V2 V3

    The past tense form (V2), the past participle form (V3), and the base form (V1) are the three main forms of verbs. These forms aid in expressing how actions in sentences are completed and timed.

    Verb Forms V1 V2 V3
    V1 Present (Root) V2 Past V3 Past Participle ing-Form
    Cool Cooled Cooled Cooling
    Believe Believed Believe Believing
    Bring Brought Brought Bringing
    Gain Gained Gained Gaining
    Grant Granted Granted Granting
    Admire Admired Admired Admiring
    Fail Failed Failed Failing
    Break Broke Broken Breaking
    Act Acted Acted Acting
    Agree Agreed Agreed Agreeing
    Amaze Amazed Amazed Amazing
    Amuse Amused Amused Amusing
    Appear Appeared Appeared Appearing
    Arrive Arrived Arrived Arriving
    Ask Asked Asked Asking
    Behave Behaved Behaved Behaving
    Borrow Borrowed Borrowed Borrowing
    Blame Blamed Blamed Blaming
    Belong Belonged Belonged Belonging
    Believe Believed Believed Believing
    Call Called Called Calling
    Cool Cooled Cooled Cooling
    Carry Carried Carried Carrying
    Cause Caused Caused Causing
    Clear Cleared Cleared Clearing
    Climb Climbed Climbed Climbing
    Enjoy Enjoyed Enjoyed Enjoying
    Explain Explained Explained Explaining
    Hunt Hunted Hunted Hunting
    Ignore Ignored Ignored Ignoring
    FightImprove FoughtImproved FoughtImproved FightingImproving
    Impress Impressed Impressed Impressing
    Invite Invited Invited Inviting
    Jog Jogged Jogged Jogging
    Jump Jumped Jumped Jumping
    Join Joined Joined Joining
    Knock Knocked Knocked Knocking
    Last Lasted Lasted Lasting
    Label Labelled Labelled Labelling
    Learn Learned Learned Learning
    Live Lived Lived Living
    Look Looked Looked Looking
    Love Loved Loved Loving
    Mark Marked Marked Marking
    Match Matched Matched Matching
    Move Moved Moved Moving
    Notice Noticed Noticed Noticing
    GrowNote GrewNoted GrownNoted GrowingNoting
    Enjoy Enjoyed Enjoyed Enjoying
    Explain Explained Explained Explaining
    Open Opened Opened Opening
    Order Ordered Ordered Ordering
    Offer Offered Offered Offering
    DrawProtect DrewProtected DrawnProtected DrawingProtecting
    Push Pushed Pushed Pushing
    Prefer Preferred Preferred Preferring
    Plan Planned Planned planning
    Play Played Played Playing
    ThrowProvide ThrewProvided ThrewProvided ThrowingProviding
    RingRepair RangRepaired RungRepaired RingingRepairing
    Become Became Become Becoming
    Flee Fled Fled Fleeing
    ChooseRepeat ChoseRepeated ChosenRepeated ChoosingRepeating
    ThinkRest ThoughtRested ThoughtRested ThinkingResting
    SitShare SatShared SatShared SittingSharing
    Save Saved Saved Saving
    Slow Slowed Slowed Slowing
    Sneeze Sneezed Sneezed Sneezing
    Solve Solved Solved Solving
    Start Started Started Starting
    Stop Stopped Stopped Stopping

    Verb Forms that Remain the Same in All Forms

    Certain verbs always have the same form in the past, but most verbs change their form to indicate when an action occurred.

    V1 Root V2 Past V3 Past Participle
    Hurt Hurt HUurt
    Hit Hit Hit
    Let Let Let
    Put Put Put
    Quit Quit Quit
    Set Set Set
    Bet Bet Bet
    Hit Hit Hit
    Cost Cost Cost
    Put Put Put
    Shut Shut Shut
    Rain Rain Rain
    Upset Upset Upset
    Wed Wed Wed
    Fit Fit Fit
    Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast
    Burst Burst Burst

    Irregular Verb Forms

    The regular pattern of verb conjugation in English is broken by irregular verb forms. Certain verbs need to have their specific forms committed to memory because they do not always end in -ed as in the past tense and past participle.

    Irregular Verb Forms
    V1 Root V2 Past V3 Past Participle
    Beat Beat Beaten
    Feel Felt Felt
    Bite Bit Bitten
    Become Became Become
    Bend Bent Bent
    Run Ran Run
    Come Came Come
    Bleed Bled Bled
    Break Broke Broken
    Bring Brought Brought
    Fight Fought Fought
    Choose Chose Chosen
    Do Did Done
    Sit Sat Sat
    Grow Grew Grawn
    Go Went Gone
    Ring Rang Rung
    Throw Threw Thrown
    Draw Drew Drawn
    Drink Drank Drunk
    Eat Ate Eaten
    Fall Fell Fallen
    Feed Fed Fed
    Fly Flew Flawn
    Forgive Forgave Forgiven
    Know Knew Known
    See Saw Seen
    Shake Shook Shaken
    Slay Slew Slain
    Smell Smelt Smelt
    Pay Paid Paid
    Mistake Mistook Mistaken

    Verb Form FAQs

    What are the different forms of verbs in English?

    Verbs in English have five major forms: the root form, third person singular present form, present participle form, simple past form, and past participle form.

    What is the root form of a verb?

    The root form is the original form of a verb without any inflections or changes. It serves as the base for creating other verb forms.

    How is the third person singular present form of a verb formed?

    In most cases, for regular verbs, an 's' or 'es' is added to the base form of the verb to indicate the third person singular present form.

    How is the present participle form of a verb formed?

    The present participle form is created by adding 'ing' to the base form of the verb. In some cases, when a word ends with a vowel followed by a consonant, the final consonant is doubled before adding 'ing'.

    What is the simple past form of a verb?

    The simple past form of a verb is used to indicate past tense actions. It is typically formed by adding ed or d to regular verbs, while irregular verbs have unique past forms.

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