Linear motion, also known as rectilinear motion, is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line that can be mathematically described using only one spatial dimension. Linear motion can be classified into two types: uniform linear motion, which occurs when an object moves in a straight line, and non-uniform linear motion, which occurs when an object moves in a curved path. A particle’s (a point-like object) motion along a line can be described by its position x, which varies with t (time). An athlete running 100m on a straight track is an example of linear motion.
We will learn about motion from this article, which stated that when an object moves from one location to another, it is said to be in motion. Every motion has its own parameters and characteristics that distinguish it from other types of motion. Then we investigated the distinction between linear and rotational motion, as linear motion occurs along a straight line, whereas rotational motion occurs along a fixed axis known as a rotational axis. Then we saw an analogy between linear and rotational motion that shows the equations for similar physical quantities in the two motions. Then we learned about the various types of motion.
There are two kinds of linear motion.
1) Rectilinear movement
2) Curvilinear movement.
Linear motion is the most fundamental type of motion. Objects that do not experience any net force will continue to move in a straight line with a constant velocity until they are subjected to a net force, according to Newton’s first law of motion. External forces such as gravity and friction can cause an object’s motion to change direction in everyday situations, so its motion cannot be described as linear. Linear motion can be compared to general motion. In general motion, vectors with magnitude and direction describe a particle’s position and velocity. The directions of all the vectors describing the system are equal and constant in linear motion, which means that the objects move along the same axis and do not change direction. As a result, the analysis of such systems can be simplified by ignoring the direction components of the vectors involved and focusing solely on the magnitude.
Motion in one spatial dimension is also known as linear motion, uniform motion, or rectilinear motion. Newton’s first law (also known as the principle of inertia) states that a body with no net force acting on it will either remain at rest or continue to move in a straight line with uniform speed, depending on its initial condition of motion.
In fact, in classical Newtonian mechanics, there is no significant difference between rest and uniform motion in a straight line; they are the same state of motion seen by two observers, one moving at the same velocity as the particle and the other moving at a constant velocity with respect to the particle. Momentum is defined as the product of a body’s mass and velocity when it is in motion. It also has an energy that is entirely due to its motion, which is known as kinetic energy.
Linear motion is defined as a change in an object’s position with respect to a time interval. We live in a universe that is constantly changing. The fundamental particle of matter, the atom, is also constantly moving. Every physical process that occurs in the universe is made up of some kind of motion. Motion can be fast or slow, but motion is always present. As previously discussed, motion is described in terms of distance, displacement, speed, and time. In general, a body is said to be in motion if its position with respect to a reference point and time changes. When describing linear motion, we only need one coordinate axis and time to describe the motion of a particle, which is then said to be in linear motion or rectilinear motion. Linear motion involves particles moving from one point to another in either a straight line or a curved path. In linear motion, an object travels the same distance at the same time and can move from one point to another in a straight or curved path.
Linear motion is an object’s natural motion: moving in a straight line. Newton’s First Law of Motion states that an object that is not affected by any force will continue in a straight line indefinitely. When a projectile is thrown vertically, it moves in a straight line and begins to fall when the force of gravity equals the force of the throw.
Comparison of linear and rotational motions
When an object moves from one point to another over time, or when an object or body changes its position in relation to time, that object is said to be in motion. It is said to be at rest or not in motion if it remains in the same position for an extended period of time. When a body moves in two or three dimensions in a straight line, along a path, or by making a few turns here and there, it is said to be in linear motion. It is the simplest of the four types of motion, and it is the motion of everyone around us in our daily lives. For example, someone walking down the street, vehicle motion, and so on are all examples of linear motion.
When an object rotates about a fixed axis, which can be anywhere on the body, it is said to be in rotational motion. It should not move from one location to another; instead, it should remain stationary and continue to rotate on its axis. A vehicle’s tire, for example, performs rotational motion about its central axis, as does the motion of a shaft in a motor, the motion of a fan, and so on.
Linear to rotary motion
The mechanism for converting linear motion to rotary motion without the use of a crank or crankshaft is the subject of this invention. Two circular members with teeth are driven in opposite directions at the same time by a chain, belt, or rack, which is connected to a piston reciprocating in a linear path. The invention is particularly suited to vapor engines, also known as expanders. It also includes electrically and mechanically actuated valve motions, as well as a reverse mechanism and a means for varying cut-off.
A mechanism for converting linear motion to unidirectional rotary motion includes a first shaft reciprocating in a linear path, pressure responsive means for moving said first shaft, a second shaft journaled to rotate on its axis, a third shaft journaled to rotate on its axis, and connecting means between said first shaft and each of the second and third shafts, said connecting means adapted to turn the second and third shafts in opposite directions on each linear reciprocation.
Linear to rotational converters with the benefits listed above is useful in a variety of applications, including control systems where a rotating vane or surface is to be controlled via an actuating rod or control cable. A prosthetic device, such as an artificial wrist, is a particularly useful application of such a converter mechanism.
Rotary motion to linear motion
The basic stepper motor generates rotary motion in a magnet rotor core by using pulses and an electromagnetic field that passes around the core. A linear actuator converts this rotational motion into a linear motion, the precision of which is determined by the rotor’s step angle and the method used to accomplish the conversion. The precision of a linear actuator that uses a screw would also be affected by the thread pitch. A nut is located in the center of the rotor of a linear actuator, and a corresponding screw is engaged in the nut. In order for the screw to move axially, it must be prevented from rotating with the nut and rotor assembly. Linear motion is achieved by anti-rotating the screw as the rotor turns. Anti-rotation is typically achieved either internally through captivation of a shaft screw assembly or externally through a nut on the screw shaft that is prevented from rotating but free along its axis. It makes sense to perform the rotary to linear conversion inside the motor for obvious design reasons. This method greatly simplifies the design of many applications by allowing a “drop-in motor” capable of precise linear motion without the need for external mechanical linkages to be installed.
Linear motion system
Linear motion is defined as motion in a straight line. It can be either constant or variable, but its relationship to time, velocity, and acceleration determine its type. That is why it can be elaborated in its true sense using mathematical tools. Linear speed is defined as the fastest possible speed that a specific automobile can experience. Various forms of energy, such as gasoline, heating oil, and diesel, are used in almost all automobile mechanical systems. These sources of energy are converted into mechanical energy depending on the type of power transmission system used. Linear motion is the fastest because it is straight and encounters little resistance. The mechanical propulsion system actually governs automobile assembly lines. Linear motion is defined as a change in an object’s position with respect to a time interval. The fundamental particle of matter, the atom, is also constantly moving. Every physical process that occurs in the universe is made up of some kind of motion. Motion can be fast or slow, but motion is always present. As previously discussed, motion is described in terms of distance, displacement, speed, and time.
Also read: Free, Forced and Damped Oscillations
Frequently Asked Questions
What is linear motion's rotational equivalent?
The quantities that are similar in both types of motion are referred to as rotational equivalents to linear motion. Torque, for example, is the rotational equivalent of force; linear momentum is angular momentum; mass is a moment of inertia, and so on.
Can you give some examples of linear motion?
Simple examples of linear motion include a bullet fired from a gun, an athlete running along a straight track, and so on.