Table of Contents
Introduction to Polymerization
In polymerization, individual small molecules, called monomers, are linked together to form a polymer chain. The process of linking monomers together is called polymerization. Polymerization can be either addition polymerization or condensation polymerization.
In addition polymerization, the monomers are linked together by a process in which new atoms are added to the polymer chain. In condensation polymerization, the monomers are linked together by a process in which atoms are removed from the polymer chain.
Overview and Importance of Polymerization
The process of polymerization is used to create long chains of molecules from small molecules. This is often done by combining smaller molecules together to create a larger molecule. Polymerization is important because it is used to create many different types of materials, including plastics, fabrics, and pharmaceuticals.
Types of Polymerisation
There are three types of polymerisation: addition polymerisation, condensation polymerisation, and ring-opening polymerisation.
- In addition polymerisation, small molecules, called monomers, are joined together to form a polymer. The polymerisation process is usually initiated by a catalyst, which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction.
- In condensation polymerisation, two monomers react to form a molecule of water, and the two monomers are joined together to form the polymer. The polymerisation process is usually initiated by a catalyst, which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction.
- In ring-opening polymerisation, a molecule of monomer is joined together to form a ring, and the ring is then opened to form the polymer. The polymerisation process is usually initiated by a catalyst, which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction.
The polymerisation of monomers is a process where individual molecules of monomer are converted into chains of polymer. The process of polymerisation can be controlled to produce polymers with different properties. There are several different polymerisation techniques, but all involve the conversion of monomers into polymer chains.
One common polymerisation technique is called addition polymerisation. In this process, individual monomers are added one at a time to a reactor, and the polymer chains are formed by the reaction of the monomers with each other. Another common polymerisation technique is called condensation polymerisation. In this process, monomers are reacted together to form polymer chains, and the by-products of the reaction are eliminated as water or another molecule.
There are also several different methods for controlling the polymerisation process. One common method is to use a catalyst, which is a substance that speeds up the reaction between monomers. Catalysts can be used to control the rate of polymerisation, as well as the properties of the polymer chains.
Degree of Polymerization
The degree of polymerization (DP) is a measure of the average number of monomers in a polymer molecule. It is typically expressed in terms of the weight average molecular weight (M w ) of the polymer.
The degree of polymerization can be determined experimentally by various methods, including size exclusion chromatography, light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
The degree of polymerization can be used to characterize the molecular weight distribution of a polymer and to estimate the degree of polymerization of unknown polymers.