Genetic biology, in simple terms, transmits genes from parents to their offspring. This transition is possible through sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction. Symptoms are passed on to offspring as genetic information. There are different types of genetic biology. One such model, Mendelian Genetics, discovered in 1900, changed the entire genetic background and inheritance for good.
Pre-Mendelian Concept of Heredity
Many theories had surfaced before the Mendelian concept of genetics was discovered. In general, it was believed that the “traits” of the parents were used to integrate during the reunion, which was the main reason for the inheritance. This theory is called “the theory of integration of the heritage,” and many of the ideas that are relevant to the pre-Mendelian period were based on this idea: –
- Moist Vapor Theory: This view was promoted by Pythagoras in which he believed that the male body produced a certain type of liquid-vapor during fertilization, which contributed to the development of the fetal body parts.
- Theory of Reproductive Blood: This view was expressed by Aristotle. He believed that both men and women produced reproductive blood. But the male reproductive system was purer than the female reproductive system. When two drops of semen came together to form an embryo, it was because of the pure male blood that the male’s features had far greater effects than the contaminated female blood.
- Preformation Theory: This theory was presented by Swammerdam. He believed that a living being was already present or had been formed before eggs or sperm in just a minute. This miniature was called a homunculus, which needed fertilization to accelerate its growth.
- Theory of Epigenesis: The theory of preformation was rejected by Wolf, a German scientist. He developed another theory of epigenesis – in which he believed that the body did not develop as much as a homunculus in a man or eggs. However, the development of body parts of the embryo is a gradual process. It was only after conception that this process began.
- Acquired Character Theory: According to renowned French biologist Lamarck, a new character is passed on to the individual offspring once it has been discovered by the same person. This theory was later rejected by a biologist who examined at least 20 generations of mice.
- Pangenesis Theory: Charles Darwin, the father of evolution, pointed out that small and invisible body parts are present in the blood called gemmules and are transmitted to the genitals and attached to gametes. After the reproductive process, these gems grow into natural body parts and organs.
- Germ Plasm Theory: This theory was developed by a German biologist named August Weismann. He pointed out that there are usually types of body tissues – germplasm and somatoplasm. The tissues of the germplasm were the reproductive tissues that helped produce gametes. The somatoplasm, on the other hand, was a tissue other than those of the reproductive tract.
What was the Mendel Test?
Gregor Mendel has experimented with hybrid pea plants with unique characteristics from different generations. In this breeding study, you skipped pea plants, each with a different trait. For example, if one plant was short, the other survived; if one has a short stem, the other pea plant has a long stem; if a person has around pea; one plant had shriveled peas, and when one plant bore white flowers another pea plant produced purple flowers.
Upon crossing, Mendel discovered that the next generation called F1 included perfect people who showed only one trait. In the next phase, the F1 generation was merged, and Mendel found that the new generation of F2 showed a different effect. These characteristics were in the ratio of 3: 1, where all three people showed the same characteristics of one parent.
This led to Mendel making it possible for genes in the human body to be grouped into three potential species, and these compounds are made up of various genetic components or genetic units- AA, aa, and Aa. Plants in the first phase were AA or aa, that is, homozygous. F1 generation Aa and F2 generation were aa, AA, or Aa.
This led to the development of Mendel Estate Laws which summarized and concluded his research –
- Law of Segregation: This law states that in any attribute, all the genes called alleles from one parent are separated and one gene from each parent is passed on to the offspring. Genetic overdose of any factor is a matter of luck.
- Law of Independent Assortment: This law states that different pairs of genes or alleles of different genes are passed on to the offspring without dependence on each other. Therefore, the inheritance of one region does not affect the inheritance of another region.
- Law of Dominance: During mating season, each offspring receives only one parent’s trait. If an outstanding feature or trait is present in the parent, the child will display an outstanding quality. Repetitive traits can only be detected if both genes are naturally repetitive.
Mendelian Heritage, or Mendelism, is a collection of genetic ideas proposed in 1865 by Gregor Mendel, an Austrian-born botanist, teacher, and Augustinian monk. These ideas form the system of partial inheritance by units or genes. The discovery of chromosomes as genetic carriers later confirmed Mendel’s two main laws, known as the Separation law and the law of independent diversity.
Mendel’s first law states that genes are passed on as different and unique generations. The two alleles (allele) gene organs, one in each paired chromosome, are separated during the production of sex cells by the parent body. The reproduction produced by these sex cells will reflect these values, as one-half of the sex cells will carry one gene and the other half will carry another.
The next two principles, or rules, cover Mendel’s findings and conclusions.
- The Law of Segregation
- According to the Divorce Act, each parent’s gene (allele) is different from any other trait, and one gene is passed on from one parent to another. It is possible that any gene in the gene is transmitted.
- Law of Independent Assortment
- According to the Independent Assortment Act, various pairs of alleles are passed on to children apart from each other. As a result, genetic inheritance in one gene is unaffected by the genetic component of another genome.
The sum of all the biological processes involved in certain genes passed on from one generation to the next is known as genetics. Genetics is a concept that combines two seemingly contradictory aspects of living organisms: the genetic variation of a species from one generation to the next and each variation within a particular species. Consistency and diversity are two sides of the same coin, as genetics indicate. Genetics, the functional units of benefit found in all living cells, can define both aspects of inheritance. Everyone in a species has a unique genetic makeup of that species. This gene group is responsible for the longevity of this species. The differences in the way each gene we take may occur within humans within a particular species, providing a genetic basis that no two people (keep the same twins) have exactly the same genome.
Basic Features of Hereditary
For a long time, genetics was one of the most confusing and mysterious natural phenomena. This is because the sex cells, which act as a genetic bridge across generations, are often invisible to the naked eye. The basic genetic material can be identified only after the introduction of the microscope in the early 17th century and the subsequent discovery of sex cells. Prior to that, Aristotle (4th century BC), a Greek philosopher and scientist of ancient times, argued that the related contributions of female and male parents were not equal; the female was considered to be giving “the story,” while the male was thought to be giving “movement.”
Q. What are the three estate laws proposed by Mendel?
Ans: The three estate laws proposed by Mendel include:
Law of Dominance
Law of Segregation
Law of Independent Assortment
What legacy law is universally accepted?
Divorce law is an internationally accepted inheritance law. It is the only law without exception. It states that each element consists of two divisive alleys during the formation of gametes and one allele for each parent being assembled during fertilization.
Why is the law of separation known as the law of hygiene of gametes?
The law of separation is known as the law of hygiene of the gamete because the gamete carries only a recurring or dominant allele but not both allele.