BlogNCERTImportant Topic Of Biology: Exophthalmic Goiter

Important Topic Of Biology: Exophthalmic Goiter

Definition:

Graves’ disease is also called goiter or exophthalmic goiter.

Graves’ disease is a disorder of the overproduction of thyroid hormones caused by hyperthyroidism. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease.

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    Graves’ disease has many signs and symptoms because thyroid hormones affect many-body systems. Although anyone can get Graves ’disease, it is most common in women under the age of 40.

    The symptoms are as follows:

    (a) Goitre (Swelling of the neck).

    (b) Protrusion of eyeballs.

    (c) The patient is tired, trembling, and agitated.

    Graves’ disease occurs when the body’s immune system produces antibodies against a single unit of thyroid cells that produce hormones in the neck for unknown reasons (thyroid gland). Thyroid function is usually regulated by a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Here we have combined the basic concepts of definition and definition of exophthalmic goiter with examples of exophthalmic goiter.

    Causes:

    Our immune system fails in Graves’ illness. It is not clear why this happened. Graves’ disease occurs when the body’s immune system produces antibodies against a single unit of thyroid cells that produce hormones in the neck for unknown reasons (thyroid gland). Thyroid function is usually regulated by a hormone produced by the pituitary gland.

    It suggests that TRAb interferes with the natural regulation of the thyroid, leading to overproduction of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).

    Symptoms:

    Graves’ disease manifests itself in the following ways:

    • Anger and anxiety.
    • Trembling hands or fingers.
    • Sensitivity to heat, increased sweating, or warm, wet skin.
    • Despite normal eating habits, you can lose weight.
    • Increased thyroid gland (goiter).
    • Menstruation times are always changing.
    • Low libido or erectile dysfunction.
    • Constipation.
    • Graves’ ophthalmopathy is a condition in which the eyes bulge.
    • Fatigue.
    • Graves ’dermopathy is characterized by thick, red skin on the thighs and soles of the feet.
    • Very fast or very slow heartbeat (heartbeat).
    • Interrupted sleep.

    Features:

    Although anyone can get Graves’ disease, a number of variables can make it worse, including:

    • Family history: Because the family history of Graves’ disease is a definite risk factor, age or genes that can make a person more sensitive to the disease are more likely to exist.
    • Sex: Graves’ disease is more common in women than in men.
    • Age: Grave illnesses often strike patients before they reach the age of 40.
    • Other autoimmune conditions: People with other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, are at greater risk.
    • Depression can be emotional or physical: People with a genetic predisposition to Graves’ disease may be the result of stressful life events or illness.
    • Pregnancy. Pregnancy or later childbirth may increase the risk of developing the disease, especially in women with a genetic predisposition.
    • Smoking: Smoking cigarettes, which appear to disrupt the immune system, increase the risk of cancer.

    Graves’ disease can include:

    • Pregnancy complications: Potential complications of grave disease during pregnancy include premature birth, premature birth, fetal thyroid fracture, fetal malformations, maternal and cardiovascular failure, and toxemia. Toxemia is a maternal condition that causes high blood pressure and other related problems.
    • Cardiovascular Disorders: When left untreated, Graves’ infections can cause heart problems, changes in the structure and function of the heart muscle, and heart failure to produce enough blood in the body.
    • Thyroid Disease: Graves’ infection is a rare but dangerous disorder of the thyroid gland, called sped-up hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxic emergencies. It is most likely if excessive hyperthyroidism is not treated or not adequately treated. An unexpected increase in the thyroid gland can cause many side effects, including fever, sweating, diarrhea, loose bowel movements, depression, severe failure, fainting, sudden heartbeat, yellow skin and eyes (jaundice), very low blood circulation, and mood swings. The thyroid gland needs immediate care.
    • Weak bones: Untreated hyperthyroidism can also cause weak, weak bones (osteoporosis). The strength of your bones depends, in part, on how much calcium and minerals are involved. Too many thyroid chemicals interfere with your body’s ability to absorb calcium from your bones.

    Predicting:

    If left untreated, more serious complications such as birth defects during pregnancy, increased risk of miscarriage, bone mineral loss, and severe cases may occur.

    Graves ’disease is often accompanied by an increase in heart rate, which leads to more heart problems, such as loss of normal heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation), leading to stroke.

    Dryness will occur if the eyes of proptosis (erupting) are so severe that the valves do not close completely at night, which puts the risk of infection of the second cornea, which can lead to blindness. In addition, pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can cause visual impairment and loss of vision.

    Chronic hyperthyroidism can lead to bone loss, which can resolve with treatment.

    Management:

    Graves ’disease is treated with antithyroid drugs that reduce the production of thyroid hormone, radioiodine (radioactive iodine I-131), and thyroidectomy (surgical removal of the prostate). Because surgery on a patient with hyperthyroid is dangerous, the patient is given antithyroid drugs prior to thyroid removal for euthyroid. Each of these treatments has its advantages and disadvantages and there is no single treatment that is thought to be suitable for everyone.

    Antithyroid drugs should be taken for six months to two years for them to work. However, once the drug is stopped, a hyperthyroid condition may develop. The risk of recurrence is about 40% -50% and lifelong antithyroid drug treatment have side effects such as agranulocytosis and liver disease.

    One of the possible side effects of antithyroid drugs is a decrease in white blood cells. As a result, radioiodine therapy is the most commonly used treatment in the United States. In contrast, antithyroid drugs and thyroidectomy are widely used in Europe, Japan, and around the world. Clean blockers do not affect the retina of the eyelid, they are connected to alpha-adrenergic receptors.

    Also read: Important Topic Of Biology: Thyroid

    FAQs

    What is an exophthalmic goiter and how does it grow?

    Exophthalmic goiter is an endocrine condition that leads to thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism in the muscle) and hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormone or hypersecretion of thyroxine).

    Describe hyperplastic goiter.

    Thyroid enlargement appears as a lump in the front of the neck and is often associated with iodine deficiency, also known as struma.

    What are the main causes of exophthalmic goiter?

    Exophthalmic goiter is caused by a failure of the immune system to fight infections, leading to an overactive thyroid gland.

    Q. Write down three symptoms of the grave disease.

    Ans: Any three symptoms of Graves’ disease are:

    • Thyroid gland integration.
    • Shivering in hands and fingers
    • Erectile dysfunction

     

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