BlogNCERTImportant Topic Of Biology: Vernalization

Important Topic Of Biology: Vernalization

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    Definition

    Vernalization is derived from the Latin word “versus”, which means “of spring”. It means to make “spring-like”. It is the induction of the plant’s flowering process by direction to the long periods of cold winter or such conditions. Once this procedure takes place, plants develop the capability of flowering. Regardless, they may necessitate extra seasonal weeks of growing before they flower.

    In the vernalization method, flowering is facilitated by a cold treatment provided to an utterly hydrated seed or a growing plant. As a result of the process of vernalization, the vegetative phase of the plant is restricted, which leads to early flowering; in the absence of cold treatment, those plants which need vernalization exhibit delayed flowering or stay vegetative.

    Overview

    Vernalisation is the induction of a plant’s flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter or by an artificial equivalent. After vernalization, plants have developed the ability to flower, but they may require additional seasonal cues or weeks of growth before they flower. The term is occasionally used to refer to the need for herbal (non-woody) plants for a period of cold dormancy to produce new shoots and leaves, but this usage is discouraged.

    Many plants grown in temperate climates require vernalization and must experience a low winter temperature to initiate or accelerate the flowering process. It ensures that reproductive development and seed production occur in spring and winters rather than autumn. They need cold that is frequently expressed in chill hours. Typical vernalization temperatures are between 1 and 7 degrees Celsius (34 and 45 degrees Fahrenheit).

    For many perennial plants, such as fruit tree species, a cold period is needed first to induce dormancy and then, after the requisite period, re-emerge from that dormancy before flowering. Many monocarpic winter annuals and biennials, including some ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana and winter cereals such as wheat, must go through a prolonged cold period before flowering occurs. In the history of agriculture, farmers observed a traditional distinction between “winter cereals”, whose seeds require chilling (to trigger their subsequent emergence and growth), and “spring cereals”, whose roots can be sown in spring and germinate, and then flower soon after that. Scientists before the 19th century had discussed how some plants needed cold temperatures to flower.

    In 1857, American agriculturist John Hancock Klippart, Secretary of the Ohio Board of Agriculture, reported the importance and effect of winter temperature on wheat germination. One of the most significant works was by a German plant physiologist, Gustav Gassner, who described in his 1918 paper. Gassner was the first to systematically differentiate the specific requirements of winter plants from those of summer plants. Early distended germinating seeds of winter cereals are sensitive to cold.

    Vernalization

    Vernalization is plants’ qualitative or quantitative reliance on exposure to a low temperature to flower. Temperature influences flowering, metabolic activities, and germination of seeds in plants. Plants that grow in temperate weather germinate at low temperatures, whereas those in hot provinces germinate at high temperatures. Some plants need disclosure to a low temperature to germinate. Similarly, a plant can be induced to flower in a growing season by exposing it to low temperatures. Hence, it shortens the vegetative phase and hastens flowering in plants.

    Difference between photoperiodism and vernalization

    Photoperiodism Vernalization
    Induction of flowering in plants by uncovering them to light and dark photoperiods. Induction of flowering in plants by disclosing them to cold temperatures.
    It provides stimulants in addition to flowering induction. It only prepares the plant to perceive flowering motivations. It does not induce flowering.
    Green leaves only receive the light stimulus in photoperiodism. Leaves, embryos, and meristem receive the cold treatment stimulus.
    Photoperiodism is intercepted by a hypothetical hormone Florigen. Vernalization is interceded by a hypothetical hormone vernalin.
    2-3 photoperiods are enough to induce flowering. Exposure to low temperatures for 50 days affects flowering.
    Gibberellic acid can substitute exposure to long photoperiods only in long-day plants. Gibberellic acid can return cold treatments to cause vernalization in all plants.
    Photoperiodism can be refused by exposing it to unfavorable photoperiods. Vernalization can be rejected by exposing them to high temperatures.

    Vernalization in plants

    Vernalisation is going inactive in cold temperatures, which helps certain plants prepare for the subsequent year. Plants with vernalization needs must be exposed to a certain number of days of freezing temperatures below a certain threshold. The needed temperatures and lengths of chilling depend on the plant species and variety. It is one reason gardeners need to choose plant varieties suited to their climate for the best results and the healthiest plants. After vernalization, these plants are capable of flowering. In years or areas in which the winter does not provide enough chilling time, these plants will deliver a poor crop or, in some cases, they will not flower or produce fruit at all.

    Vernalization and Plant Flowering

    Numerous types of plants have vernalization conditions. Each winter, multiple fruit trees, including apples and peaches, require the lowest chilling times to produce a good crop. Too warm winters can harm the trees’ health or even kill them over time. Bulbs like tulips, hyacinths, crocus, and daffodils need to be exposed to cold winter temperatures to flower, and they may not flower if grown in warmer regions or if the winter is hot.

    Vernalization in agriculture

    Some wildflower species are particularly affected by seed dormancy, and many require particular practices to break dormancy and induce germination. For germination to occur, dampness must enter seeds. The process of scarifying sources can vary from scratching and cracking seed coats, soaking seeds briefly in hot water or extreme acid, or exposing roots to fire. Many have responded better to specific types of scarification within the hundreds of forb species. For example, many legumes have hard seed coats and require scarification to break dormancy.

    Vernalization subjects moistened seeds to cold temperatures to stimulate germination. It is often used when growers want to plant seeds in the spring. Vernalization imitates winter conditions to cause seed germination as if the sources were emerging springtime. Vernalisation can also help overcome endogenous chemical inhibitions. Different species need different necessities for vernalization; for example, some species need to be subjected to vernalization longer than others.

    Significance of chapter for JEE main, Neet, and Board exams

    This process can aid in curtailing the vegetative phase of a plant and bring about early flowering, which applies to delicate plants and some tropical plants.

    • Via vernalization, Kernel wrinkles of the Triticale can be eliminated.
    • It elevates the yield opposition of plants to fungal diseases.
    • It increases the cold resistance of plants.
    • Aids in the advancement of crops.
    • Vernalization in biennials can cause early flowering and early fruit a.
    • The flowering process could be induced by grafting, which is used in agriculture.

    Also read: Important Topic Of Biology: Plant Growth Rate

    FAQs

    What do you understand by the term vernalization?

    Vernalization is derived from the Latin word “versus”, which means “of spring”. It means to make “spring-like”. It is the induction of the plant's flowering process by direction to the long periods of cold winter or such conditions. Once this procedure takes place, plants develop the capability of flowering. Regardless, they may necessitate extra seasonal weeks of growing before they flower.

    Who has introduced the term vernalization?

    Botanist P. Chouard has introduced the term vernalization.

    How does vernalization take place in plants?

    Vernalisation is plants' qualitative or quantitative reliance on exposure to a low temperature to flower. Temperature influences flowering, metabolic activities, and germination of seeds in plants. Plants that grow in temperate weather germinate at low temperatures, whereas those in hot provinces germinate at high temperatures.

    What is the significance of vernalization in plants?

    This process can aid in curtailing the vegetative phase and bring about early flowering, which applies to delicate plants and some tropical plants. Via vernalization, Kernel wrinkles of the Triticale can be eliminated.

     

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